Nuremberg Trials II

Lead: Faced with undeniable proof of Nazi atrocities, in 1946 the Allies brought twenty-one German leaders to trial for war crimes in the ancient Bavarian city of Nuremberg.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: “The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated,” thus the words of United States Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson on leave to serve as Chief U.S. Prosecutor in the Nuremberg Trials. With horror stories beginning to emerge as to the extent of Nazi depravity, the Allies were faced with the larger question of what to do with Germany which had twice in thirty years dragged the world to war. Clearly, war crimes and genocide on an unprecedented scale had been committed.

Nuremberg Trials I

Lead: By 1943 the tide of victory had begun to shift in favor of the Allies. How they used that victory would give shape to the postwar world. One of their first tasks was to bring war criminals to justice at Nuremberg.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: As World War II ground on, word began to slip out of occupied Europe describing terrible atrocities. These were not the acts of inhumanity normally associated with war. This was an organized terror rarely experienced in the modern era. Genocide on a scale theretofore considered unimaginable was engulfing groups thought by the Nazis and their allies to be subhuman. Jews, selected evangelical Christians, homosexuals, gypsies, the mentally infirm, and others were gradually being exterminated in Hitler's twisted pursuit of racial purity.

The Beer Hall Putsch

Lead: Adolf Hitler was very bitter when he left the army after World War I. He and many other Germans were angered by what he felt was betrayal on the part of those Germans who had arranged the Armistice ending the war and signed the Treaty of Versailles bring the peace.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The main focus of his malignant energy was the Weimar Republic, the government struggling to bring some semblance of democracy to a Germany many of whose citizens simply did not want it, and Hitler was one of them.

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The Seventh Member (of the German Workers Party)

Lead: In September, 1919 a 30 year old corporal in the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment was sent to spy out the meeting of a tiny political party. He was not impressed.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Twenty-five people sitting around in a bar listening to boring speeches. It was hardly a threat to the national interests and he reported that back to his superiors.

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Sergeant Elliott’s Discovery

Lead: If George Elliott had recognized the importance of what he had seen that morning, he would surely had not let it rest.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: The mountain was called Opana. The mobile radar unit was new and was positioned on top a mountain named Opana on the northern part of the island of Oahu. Sergeant Elliott was in the signal corps and was doing double duty. He and Private Lockhard had been at the station since 12 noon the previous day. They were there to guard the apparatus, but from 4 to 7 in the morning, as was the procedure, they were to operate the radar. They ran the radar equipment in order to practice with it, three hours a day.

 

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Hitler’s Generals Conspire

Lead: By the fall of 1938 the Nazis had eliminated most opposition to Hitler but not all.

Intro.: "A Moment In Time” with Dan Roberts.

Content: The press, universities, political parties, the church, and the courts were either fully under the control of the regime or fear had neutralized them. This does not mean there was no opposition. In fact, some of the highest ranking officers of the German military were actively plotting against the Fuhrer. Unlike other Germans who loathed the Nazis, these men could do something about it.

 

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Creation of the United Nations – II

Lead: Determined to avoid the mistakes of the League of Nations, the founding states of the United Nations met to draft a charter in San Francisco in the Spring of 1945.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: One of the factors complicating the establishment of the United Nations was that its Charter provisions were hammered out when the primary concern of the founders was the defeat of the Axis. Nothing could be allowed to deter the Allies from this task. Therefore the negotiations proceeded with a certain delicacy.

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Creation of the United Nations – I

Lead: In October 1945, the victorious World War II Allies met in San Francisco to establish the United Nations. It was the 20th century’s second multi-purpose world-wide international organization and emerged from the failures of the first.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When the charter members met in spring 1945, they were determined to steer clear of the fatal weaknesses that proved so damaging to the U.N.’s predecessor, the League of Nations. In many ways the failures of the League insured the success of the United Nations. The League came to grief in part because one of its great champions, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, despite a prodigious public relations campaign that probably undermined his health, failed to convince the Senate, led by conservative Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, to ratify the Versailles Treaty (1919) a section of which established the League. That meant the up-and-coming international power during the 1920s and 1930s would not be a full player in League debates or diplomatic efforts. The League also lacked an independent enforcement mechanism, and when Germany, Italy and Japan began their pattern of aggression that ultimately led to World War II, and the major Allies refused to act, the League was powerless and therefore discredited.

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