Narcis Monturiol – Catalan Inventor

Lead: A curious combination of entrepreneurial creativity and philosophical socialism, Narcis Monturiol developed and built the first successful submarine in 1859. 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts. 

                Content: Narcis Monturiol Estorial was born in the Catalan fishing village of Figuras 1819 on the coast of northeastern Spain. He completed his law degree in Barcelona at the age of 24 and like many European intellectuals of the 19th century was early on infected with a lifelong attachment is socialist. He became editor of the progressive activist publications and for a time was tempted to become a part of a pacifist brotherhood, the Icarians, who were attempting to settle a socialist utopian community in America.

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Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 – III

Lead: In early summer 1494 Portugal and Spain, the two leading maritime powers of Europe, perhaps of the world, met in the southwestern village Tordesillas to carve up the world.

               Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Spain had come late to the exploring enterprise, but when Columbus actually found something on his voyage to what became known as the New World, his patrons, Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella, were quick to recognize their peril.  Portugal was lurking just over the horizon ready to take advantage of any territorial claims that Spain was not able to secure by force of arms or diplomacy.

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Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 – II

Lead: Hearing that Columbus had returned from the expedition to the New World they had sponsored, the rulers of Spain attempted to secure their interests by turning to a higher power.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: When Columbus in 1493 first returned to the Old World from his first voyage to the New World, he first landed on the coast of Portugal. He was immediately invited to Lisbon to describe his findings. Portuguese King John II, quickly  laid claim to all of Columbus's findings. He did so on the basis of the previous treaty, sanctioned by the pope of the Roman Catholic Church Sixtus IV in 1481.

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Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 – I

Lead: In 1493, shortly after the return of Christopher Columbus, Spain's rulers petitioned the pope to protect their interests.  The far-reaching result was the Treaty of Tordesillas.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Spice. For centuries, spices - white and black pepper, cinnamon cloves, mace, frankincense, nutmeg, cassia, myrrh – from China, India, and the southeastern Asia island archipelago, have commanded fortunes and shaped empires. Spices were used to preserve foodstuffs. Aromatic spices were also the basis for exotic medical and therapeutic elixirs and syrups.

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