Sir Francis Drake I

Lead: Part scoundrel, part tyrant, part patriot, Francis Drake, for generations of his countrymen, was the symbol of England’s greatness.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Drake was born in Devonshire, southwestern England in the early 1540s, the last years of the reign of King Henry VIII. His father was a tenant farmer, but also an ardent Protestant lay preacher. In 1549 the family had to flee to southeast England during one of the Catholic uprisings common to the West Country. In those the years the nation was struggling over whether to stay with Protestantism or return to the Roman Catholic Church. Drake’s lifelong and enthusiastic commitment to the Protestant faith and apparent delight in tweaking the tail of Catholic Spain may be traced to the experiences of his troubled youth.

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Spanish Inquisition I

Lead: The Political Unity in Spain was forged in part by a religious policy known as the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: By the Early Middle Ages, the on rushing tide of evangelical Islam had swept North Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and moved irresistibly north into Spain. Moslem forces were halted only by vigorous military action at the Pyrenees Mountains. Seven centuries of near constant conflict followed. Christian and Moslems struggled over the control of Spain but in many ways the warfare masked social, ethnic, and political upheaval as well as religious dispute.

 

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Spanish Inquisition II

Lead: Beset by plague, war, and religious conflict Spain in the 1400s forced the mass conversion of thousands of Jews and Moslems and enforced this policy with the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: Despite hundreds of years of warfare between Moslem and Christian kingdoms in Spain, both groups were reasonably tolerant of their Jewish citizens. This began to change in the middle of the 1300s with the coming of the Black Death. The Bubonic Plague reduced the population of some areas of Europe by a third and the cities of Spain were not spared. This was inflicted on a peninsula engaged in almost continual warfare as Christian rulers attempted throw the Moslems out of areas they had taken hundreds of years before. To make matters worse Europe's great unifying institution, the Roman Catholic Church could not help people deal with all of these troubles. It was distracted and divided. From 1378 to 1415 the Great Schism divided the church. Two popes one in Avignon in France and the other in Rome demanded the loyalty of the nations of Europe.

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Spanish Inquisition II

Lead: The Political Unity in Spain was forged in part by a religious policy known as the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: By the Early Middle Ages, the on rushing tide of evangelical Islam had swept North Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and moved irresistibly north into Spain. Moslem forces were halted only by vigorous military action at the Pyrenees Mountains. Seven centuries of near constant conflict followed. Christian and Moslems struggled over the control of Spain but in many ways the warfare masked social, ethnic, and political upheaval as well as religious dispute.

 

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Spanish Inquisition I

Lead: The Political Unity in Spain was forged in part by a religious policy known as the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: By the Early Middle Ages, the on rushing tide of evangelical Islam had swept North Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and moved irresistibly north into Spain. Moslem forces were halted only by vigorous military action at the Pyrenees Mountains. Seven centuries of near constant conflict followed. Christian and Moslems struggled over the control of Spain but in many ways the warfare masked social, ethnic, and political upheaval as well as religious dispute.

 

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Spanish Cultural Diversity II

Lead: Attempts to suppress cultural and religious diversity have been one of the hallmarks of modern Spain. From the work of the Spanish Inquisition to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, these efforts have only lightly covered over real differences. In 1978 Spain tried a new way.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: For thirty-six years, the last caudillo, Francisco Franco held his thumb in dike of progress. It was a valiant, but futile attempt at keeping parts of Spanish life, religion, culture, and politics under wraps, while opening the way to economic innovation, outside markets, and prosperity. Franco failed, but it remained to be seen how post-Franco Spain would deal with the changing world outside as well how it would accommodate long-standing and suppressed internal regional conflict.

Spanish Cultural Diversity I

Lead: After the death of in 1975 Francisco Franco and the coming of democracy, Spain set out to deal with its rich cultural diversity. It was a complex task, centuries overdue.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: From the outside, a casual observer might be forgiven if they did not recognize that modern Spain is a rich tapestry of cultural variety. Spain’s geographical proximity to Africa, a scant 20 miles across the Straits of Gibraltar, and its long northern border with France and the rest of Europe, have made it an ethnic land bridge, a magnet for different cultures, religions and peoples since long before the Roman Empire. The Greeks came, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Visigoths and other Germanic tribes swirled into the void left by a collapsing Rome and then in the eighth century, crusading Arabs and Berbers from Africa brought evangelical Islam at the point of a sword. Then, for over seven centuries, Spain became one of the violent frontiers between Christian Europe and the Islamic culture to the south.

Spanish Civil War Aftermath II

Lead: While Francisco Franco and his fascists slowly led Spain into its post-war economic and political recovery, he maintained a wary relationship with one of his key allies, the Roman Catholic Church.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From the medieval period, Spain was one of the bulwarks within the Catholic constellation. Yet, through periods of church weakness and strength, the government in Madrid insured that the state was supportive of the church, but also retained significant control over church affairs inside Spain. The two were convinced that the survival of church and state, of order and morality were dependent upon a close if tense alliance, and that if they did not embrace one another, both would collapse.

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