Spanish Inquisition II

Lead: The Political Unity in Spain was forged in part by a religious policy known as the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: By the Early Middle Ages, the on rushing tide of evangelical Islam had swept North Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and moved irresistibly north into Spain. Moslem forces were halted only by vigorous military action at the Pyrenees Mountains. Seven centuries of near constant conflict followed. Christian and Moslems struggled over the control of Spain but in many ways the warfare masked social, ethnic, and political upheaval as well as religious dispute.

 

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Spanish Inquisition I

Lead: The Political Unity in Spain was forged in part by a religious policy known as the Spanish Inquisition.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: By the Early Middle Ages, the on rushing tide of evangelical Islam had swept North Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and moved irresistibly north into Spain. Moslem forces were halted only by vigorous military action at the Pyrenees Mountains. Seven centuries of near constant conflict followed. Christian and Moslems struggled over the control of Spain but in many ways the warfare masked social, ethnic, and political upheaval as well as religious dispute.

 

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Spanish Cultural Diversity II

Lead: Attempts to suppress cultural and religious diversity have been one of the hallmarks of modern Spain. From the work of the Spanish Inquisition to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, these efforts have only lightly covered over real differences. In 1978 Spain tried a new way.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: For thirty-six years, the last caudillo, Francisco Franco held his thumb in dike of progress. It was a valiant, but futile attempt at keeping parts of Spanish life, religion, culture, and politics under wraps, while opening the way to economic innovation, outside markets, and prosperity. Franco failed, but it remained to be seen how post-Franco Spain would deal with the changing world outside as well how it would accommodate long-standing and suppressed internal regional conflict.

Spanish Cultural Diversity I

Lead: After the death of in 1975 Francisco Franco and the coming of democracy, Spain set out to deal with its rich cultural diversity. It was a complex task, centuries overdue.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: From the outside, a casual observer might be forgiven if they did not recognize that modern Spain is a rich tapestry of cultural variety. Spain’s geographical proximity to Africa, a scant 20 miles across the Straits of Gibraltar, and its long northern border with France and the rest of Europe, have made it an ethnic land bridge, a magnet for different cultures, religions and peoples since long before the Roman Empire. The Greeks came, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Visigoths and other Germanic tribes swirled into the void left by a collapsing Rome and then in the eighth century, crusading Arabs and Berbers from Africa brought evangelical Islam at the point of a sword. Then, for over seven centuries, Spain became one of the violent frontiers between Christian Europe and the Islamic culture to the south.

Spanish Armada – III

Lead: Clearly provoked by English policy, in 1588 Philip II of Spain sent a large fleet to support an invasion of southern England. It turned out not to be much of an Armada and was certainly not invincible.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: By 1585 Philip was convinced that in order to break English economic, diplomatic and military power and to restore Catholicism to England, he would need to mount an invasion. As it evolved, here was the plan. The Spanish would assemble a fleet of warships filled with supplies and troops, sail to Flanders in what is modern day Belgium, secure the Straits of Dover from English naval interference, screen the transport across the English Channel of 30,000 troops under the command of the Duke of Parma, vice-regent of the Spanish Netherlands, and support the invasion. From the beginning, almost everything went wrong.

Spanish Armada – II

Lead: In 1588 Spain sent a powerful fleet to support an invasion of southern England. Despite English propaganda to the contrary, this action was clearly provoked by the government of English Queen Elizabeth I.

 

                Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: In the early days of her rule, one of Elizabeth’s best friends was King Philip II of Spain. He had been the husband of her sister and predecessor, Mary Tudor. He hoped that Elizabeth would continue Mary’s policy of Catholic restoration and, perhaps, even accept his hand in a powerful dynastic and diplomatic marriage. By 1560, however, it was clear Elizabeth desired a modified Protestantism for England and that she was toying with Philip’s affections just as she would every man who sought, by winning her heart, to compromise her power and capture her kingdom.

Spanish Armada – I

Lead: By the mid-1580s Philip II of Spain had had enough. He determined to destroy his heretical sister-in-law Elizabeth and bring her backward, troublesome little island kingdom to heel.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: Philip of Spain always had high hopes for Elizabeth. He had, after all, been her brother-in-law, married to Mary Tudor, her older sister. Mary’s rule was short, however, and the queen died before she and Philip could produce the Catholic heir that might, over time, have restored stubborn England to the true faith. Philip didn’t like the English and they returned the compliment. Nevertheless, he hoped that when Mary died and Elizabeth took her place in 1558, he might win her hand and continue to pull England back out of Protestantism. A marriage would also maintain the European balance of power thus keeping France at a diplomatic disadvantage. Unfortunately, Elizabeth understood that marriage to Philip would drag England into continental disputes on the side of Spain, but more importantly, insure her power as a female ruler would be compromised in a marriage. Therefore, she paried Philip’s advances as she did the long line of suitors that tried to ensnare her heart and her throne.

Discovery of Cuba – II

Lead: The first major discovery of Christopher Columbus after his initial landfall in autumn 1492, was Cuba. He then turned his attention elsewhere and not until 1508 was Cuba even determined to be an island.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: The early development of Cuba by Europeans was a much-delayed thing. This was primarily due to the premier motivation for Spanish exploration in the so-called New World. Spain wanted a route to the rich spice islands of East Asia and it wanted gold and silver. It soon became obvious to most observers that the islands and mainland of the new lands were not Asia. Columbus died still convinced America was Asia but he was in a growing minority. It also became clear that the islands forming the eastern border of the Caribbean had only tiny deposits of precious metals. The search for gold went west into Mexico and South America.