First Human Heart Transplantation I

Lead: In December 1967, surgeons in South Africa performed the first human heart transplant. 53-year-old Lewis Washkansky survived for 18 days.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The work of Dr. Christiaan Barnard in transplanting the heart of 25-year-old auto accident victim Denise Durvall into Washkansky built on more than two centuries of experimentation in immunology and surgery. This progress was enhanced by the late 19th-century work on antibodies by Paul Ehrlich, the blood typing research of Karl Landsteiner in 1900, and Ilya Metchnikoff’s theory of host rejection.

First Human Heart Transplantation II

Lead: Building on two centuries of research and experimentation, South African Dr. Christaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Though he was the first surgeon to successfully transplant a human heart, Dr. Barnard was using a technique developed by an American team at Stanford University Medical Center, led by surgeon Norman Shumway, who was considered by many to be the father of heart transplantation. In 1958 Shumway had transplanted the first heart in a dog. He and his associates had spent most of the early 1960s developing heart-lung machines and progressively removing the obstacles to organ transplantation. By the middle of the decade only the issue of immunosuppression seemed to be blocking the way. The body of the patient had a natural tendency to reject donor tissue as an alien to be destroyed.

Gandhi in South Africa – III

Lead: Mahatma Gandhi developed what some have erroneously come to call, “passive resistance” in turn of the twentieth century South Africa. There he acquired vital political skills, which he would use to great effect later in India.


Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.


                Content: In theory at least, citizenship in the British Empire whether that be in India, Fiji, Jamaica, South Africa or England itself, implied equal rights with all other imperial subjects. The theory did not always work out it practice.

Anglo-Zulu War – III

Lead: The war went well for the Zulu at first. British military incompetence produced some early victories for the Africans, but the defense of their homeland against the Europeans was in the end a hopeless cause.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.


Content: Chief Cetyshwayo knew he was going to lose. He had watched the slow encroachment of European civilization, Dutch Afrikaners from the west, Brits from Natal, as they crowded the once powerful Zulu nation in Northeastern South Africa. He even secured a British agent, John Dunn, to advise when dealing with his adversaries, but by 1878 it was clear that London had decided that Zulu power had to be broken.


Anglo-Zulu War – II

                Lead: The Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 arose from conflicting aspirations of the Zulu, prospectors for gold and diamonds, Christian missionaries, and Dutch and British settlers frontier in South Africa’s Natal province.


                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.


                Content: In 1838 the decades old expansion of the Zulu nation in northeastern South Africa was abruptly halted at the Battle of Blood River. 3000 Zulu warriors were killed in a bloody confrontation with Afrikaner voortrekkers under Andries Pretorius. The Zulu retreated into their tradition homeland north and east of the Tugela River in Natal province. Their powerful army and centralized government allowed them to remain independent of European encroachment for more than four decades. By the mid-1870s this autonomy was under serious threat.

Anglo-Zulu War – I

Lead: In the late 1870s faced with a British imperial ultimatum to disband their military system, the Zulu clans of Northeastern South Africa prepared for a war their leader was certain they would lose.


                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.


                Content: The ancient tribal homeland of the Zulu lies north of the Tugela River in the northeastern part of South Africa’s Natal Province. The Zulu are a Bantu-speaking people, part of the Nguni ethnic grouping and were a relatively unimportant clan until the early decades of the 1800s. At that time there came to the throne one of the significant military thinkers in world history. Shaka (Chaka) subdued his family rivals and united the Zulu clans under his leadership. He then began to re-organize the Zulu war apparatus. He modified the traditional tribal weapon, the assegai, creating a new short iron sword designed for close in combat, he shaped his army into regiments, housed them in barracks for most of the year, refused to allow them to wear shoes so as to toughen their feet, thus increasing their speed, and then developed new unified flanking tactics directed by hand signals which when perfected overwhelmed his African enemies and gave the Zulu preeminence in the region.