LFM: Mammy Kate

Lead: For 400 years service men and women have fought to carve out and defend freedom and the civilization we know as America. This series on A Moment in Time is devoted to the memory of those warriors, whose devotion gave, in the words of Lincoln at Gettysburg, the last full measure.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Stephen Heard was born in 1740 in Hanover County, Virginia. Heard served under George Washington during the French and Indian War and was promoted to the rank of captain because of his courageous and exceptional leadership. In 1769, with his father and brother, Heard moved to Georgia and, like many Americans, tried to stay out of the fight during the early days of the Revolution. The loss of members of his family at the hands of Tories, Crown loyalists brought him into the war on the patriot side where he distinguished himself in the ranks of the Georgia militia at the crucial Battle of Kettle Creek near Augusta, on Valentine's Day, 1779. Unfortunately, at that battle Heard was captured and transported to Fort Cornwallis, a military jail in the village of Augusta, then held by the British.

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John Brown – Part II

Lead: In 1855 abolitionist, John Brown, took five of his sons to Kansas. They made big trouble in a land already troubled by slavery. He surfaced again in Harper’s Ferry.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, partisans on both sides of the slavery question flooded into Kansas. Would Kansas be a free state or a slave state?  Among the anti-slavery forces were John Brown and his sons. After a bloody raid on the small town of Lawrence by pro-slavery ruffians from Missouri, Brown led a revenge strike along Pottawatomie Creek. Five proslavery settlers were brutally murdered. Brown and his sons were never charged. In Kansas, he was already becoming a legend.

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John Brown – Part I

Lead: Even after his execution in December 1859, John Brown continued to divide America. He was a polarizing figure who brought conflict over slavery into bold relief.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts. 

                Content: He was a martyr to abolitionists and a crazed fanatic to southerners. The way John Brown was viewed reflected sharp sectional tensions north and south that led to Civil War. John Brown, the son of anti-slavery Calvinists, was born in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. His family moved to Ohio when he was five years old. Brown grew up poor, had little formal education and lost his mother as a young child. He also was widowed as a young man, married again and fathered a total of twenty children, half of whom survived to adulthood. A restless drifter, Brown lived in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and New York, trying his hand at a number of trades: animal husbandry, tanning, farming, wool trading, and land speculating.

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The Role of Women Slaves – Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley – I

Lead: For women, slavery was especially painful. The life of Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley demonstrates just how difficult it could be, and her life was something of a success story.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Elizabeth Keckley was born into slavery near Petersburg, Virginia in 1818. Lizzie’s mother was a house slave, Agnes, owned by the Burwell family. Her father she thought was George Hobbs, a slave a on neighboring plantation. At her mother’s deathbed, however, Lizzie learned her actual father was the master of the Burwell plantation.

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The Road to Philadelphia and Henry Box Brown – II

Lead: In 1848 after Richmond slave Henry Brown saw his wife and children for the last time after they had been "sold South" he decided it was about time he got out of there. He risked his life for a taste of freedom.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After his family was gone Henry Brown devised a daring and bold plan to escape this system that had so cruelly broken his heart. In 1849 he enlisted the help of a white shoemaker, paid him $84.00, and had himself shipped to Philadelphia. Brown crammed himself, all 5 feet, 8 inches, 200 pounds, into a box three feet long, two feet wide and two feet, eight inches deep and it was nailed shut. The box was labeled “dry goods.” He sat with his knees jammed into his chest and was equipped with a bladder of water, crackers and a sharp tool to poke holes if there was not enough air.

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The Road to Philadelphia and Henry Box Brown – I

Lead: In 1848 the family – wife and children – of Henry Brown was “sold South.”  With little to live for, this industrial slave, risking life and limb, gained fame and freedom in a most unusual way. 

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The pre-war Southern industrial labor system, of which Richmond, Virginia was an integral part, depended on the use of slaves – slaves either owned by or leased for work in factories.  Unlike plantation slaves, these urban slaves often arranged their own lodging, mingled with free blacks, and if they were industrious and hard-working, could do additional work on their time off through the hiring out system.   That was the upside, the downside was “selling South.”  It is estimated that one-third to one-half of the slave families sold at auction in Richmond were split up and sent to other parts of the region.  Tragically, even after the Civil War, many never saw each other again.

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Slaves Come to Virginia

Lead: The first slaves brought to Virginia may have arrived here as part of the spoils of a privateering expedition organized by a wealthy English Puritan Lord.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: In the first decades of the 1600s, Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, was fascinated with the trading opportunities in the Caribbean, but he had a problem. His monarch, King James I of England had signed a treaty with the Spanish and the Spanish controlled most of the Caribbean. Rich was interested in North American colonies. He was a Puritan and as the century matured he and others of like mind were concerned that James enthusiasm for the Spanish was wrong and they began to urge the King to attack the Spanish on all fronts. When he refused they asked if they could engage in privateering in the Caribbean, attacking Spanish ships for profit. James, who was usually hard-up for cash, was not averse to taking a little on the side even if it flew in the face of his pro-Spanish official policy.

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Charles Nalle and the Fugitive Slave Law (1850)

Lead: Under pressure from Southern states, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. In the spring of 1859, escaped slave Charles Nalle almost got caught.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Increasingly under siege from northern abolitionists and fearful of the loss of their property, Southern slave holders and their allies sought legal protection. If an escaped slave was caught in a free state, federal law demanded that he or she be returned their owner by the arresting authorities.

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