Frederick Banting and the Cure of Diabetes

Lead: His intuitive guess led to the cure of diabetes and a Nobel Prize for an obscure Canadian country doctor, Frederick Banting.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: In 1920 Banting was a surgeon in a small Canadian town. After service on the French front in World War I, he returned home to find the market glutted with doctors. He set up practice in London, Ontario and waited 29 days for his first patient. Probably the most the most enticing proposal to come his way in the first six months was the chance to teach a weekly class on internal medicine at the local university. He was up late on the night of October 30th preparing for a lecture on the pancreas, a subject about which he knew practically nothing. This ignorance led him to make an amazing and simple conjecture.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Lead: In the summer of 1674 a minor civil servant in Delft, Holland was boating on a freshwater lake near his home. The next day he was surprised to find a water sample he brought home was teeming with life.

Intro. A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Not a great deal is known of the early life of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, but by his mid-thirties he had a dry-goods business and held a position with the sheriff of his hometown of Delft. With this work he supported his family and a most unusual hobby. He ground lenses and used them to study tiny objects.

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The Phenomenon of Albert Einstein – Part III

Lead: The theories of Albert Einstein helped shape the modern understanding of the universe. One of the most interesting ideas growing out of his work was the clock theory.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Writing in the early decades of the twentieth century, Einstein, as part of his theory of relativity, advanced the idea that time does not run at the same pace for every observer. If a person holding a clock is riding a train, clock will run a tiny bit slower than a similar clock held by his companion who is standing still beside the track. The difference is caused by the speed of the train. The phenomenon can also be caused by gravity. A clock on the sun - with its stronger gravity - would not run quite as fast as a clock on the earth.

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The Phenomenon of Albert Einstein – Part II

Lead:  After fifteen years of relative obscurity Albert Einstein emerged as a public figure of great fascination to millions of people. He was, however, a most curious superstar.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In November, 1919 the Royal Society of London announced that a team of astronomers had photographed a total solar eclipse on Principe (Prin-ce-pe) Island in the Gulf of Guinea off the western coast of Africa. Their calculations confirmed the general theory of relativity formulated by a little-known German physicist, Albert Einstein. Einstein had asserted that Isaac Newton's description of gravity as a force was inaccurate. Gravitation, according to Einstein, was a curved field created by the presence of matter. The British astronomers confirmed this theory by demonstrating that starlight passing close to the sun on its way to the earth would be bent by the gravitational pull of the sun.

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The Phenomenon of Albert Einstein – Part I

Lead:  In late 1919 the theories of a little-known German physicist were confirmed to the post-war world. Newspapers and magazines began to establish the phenomenon of Albert Einstein.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Born in 1879, Einstein attended German schools then governed by a regime of harsh discipline. Such an education bored him and though early on became fascinated with mathematics and science, in the rigid schools of the time, he showed no particular academic gift. He did study music, became a more than competent violinist and played for relaxation and pleasure during the rest of his life.

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Ilya Metchnikoff and the Immune System

Lead: Arrogant, opinionated, and much impressed with his own intellectual superiority, Russian biologist Ilya Metchnikoff (Maych-nikof) stumbled across the immune system.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: As an undergraduate at the University of Karkov Metchnikoff bragged that he would one day be recognized as a great scientific genius. He possessed a photographic memory and an insatiable curiosity about nature but in his pursuit of fame he reached conclusions about his so-called discoveries that often had to be revised or retracted. As a graduate student he was always getting into terrific quarrels with his professors and leaving in a huff to move on to some other school.

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The Miracle of Blood Plasma

Lead:  It is ironic that the horrors of warfare often produce advances in science. During World War II the demands of treating battlefield wounded brought about a vast improvement in the delivery of blood.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Combat surgeons in the First World War discovered that more soldiers died from loss of blood than from the physical damage of the bullets that hit them. When blood is drained from the body, arteries tend to collapse. Collapsed arteries cut off the remaining blood supply to the vital organs and as a result, the wounded go into shock. Loss of color, cold, clammy skin, often sudden death.

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The Missoula Floods – Part I

Lead:  J. Harlen Bretz stared at the geological map of the Quincy Basin near the Columbia River in eastern Washington state. He thought he recognized the outline of a huge waterfall, but how could that be? There was no water.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.
Content: While teaching high school in Seattle before World War I, Bretz became fascinated with a section of Washington state known as the Scablands, about 2000 square miles of stripped earth around Spokane that looked as thought a giant had reached down and scraped the earth away leaving bare, black rock. Heaps of gravel hundreds of feet high, enormous "potholes" and huge canyons where no water runs. To Bretz they meant the presence of water, flood water in incredible volume. The problem for Bretz was that his conclusions meant that he would soon find himself in conflict with most of the scholars in his field.

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