The Cossacks Part I

Lead: In the late 1500s Russia expanded into the vast and often desolate region of Siberia. Leading the way was a band of fiercely independent military cavalry warriors called the Cossacks.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Cosssack is a derivative of the Turkic word” kazak,” which means “adventurer” or “free man.” Cossacks were escaped serfs, religious refugees, nomads and outlaws drawn together by their common estrangement in present day southern Ukraine and the steppes of western Russia.

 

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Beria III (Russia)

Lead: After clawing his way to the top of the ailing Joseph Stalin's pyramid of bureaucratic terror, Lavrentiy Beria seemed set to succeed the maximum leader.

Intro. A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1938 Stalin brought him to Moscow after Beria had distinguished himself as the bloody enforcer of the Great Purges in Georgia and other southern Soviet provinces near the Caucasus Mountains. He became assistant to Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the NKVD, in the waning days of the purge, and after Yezhov's fall from power and execution, Beria took his place. He became a candidate member of the Politburo and during World War II he sat on the five-member State Defense Committee, which, with Stalin, directed the war effort. Beria was responsible for internal security as well as foreign intelligence operations and the network of forced labor camps he ruled, the Gulag Archipelago, turned out much of the raw material for the Soviet war industry.

Beria II (Russia)

Lead: Of the henchmen of Joseph Stalin, none struck fear in the hearts of Russians quite like Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Born of Georgian peasant stock in 1899, Beria became a Marxist sympathizer while attending technical college in Azerbaijan. At the fall of the Russian monarchy, Beria dropped out of school to join the Army, apparently to spread Communist ideas and help undermine morale. When the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional government in the October Revolution, Beria returned home to finish his studies but was soon caught up in his party's counterintelligence service, the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage, or CHEKA.

Beria I (Russia)

Lead: In a history punctuated by rulers noted for their villainy, Russia produced few leaders as efficiently cruel or as feared as Stalin's exterminator, Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In his long rule over the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin acquired a reputation for ruthlessness and near barbarity in the pursuit and maintenance of his power, yet it was some of his henchmen, anxious to do his bidding and please him, who brought a whole new dimension to the practice of state sponsored terrorism.

Stalin Gets His Man (Trotsky)

Lead: Joseph Stalin had had enough. The heavy hand of the Russian dictator reached out across 10,000 miles and struck his old enemy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After ridding himself of most of the old Bolsheviks in a series of show trials, Stalin determined to eliminate his greatest rival for power one who was not even in Russia, Leon Trotsky. Trotsky was the creator of the Red Army, had been present at the beginning of the Revolution and was a charismatic leader but was no political infighter. Stalin, from his position as Party Chairman working behind the scenes, by early 1928 had so packed the Soviet Politburo that he was able to deport Trotsky first to Siberia and eventually to Mexico.

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Ivan the Terrible

Lead: Few figures in Russia's vast and interesting history have elicited the same degree of fear as has Ivan the Terrible or more precisely Ivan the Awesome.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: With that fascinating combination of religious devotion and personal cruelty, Czar Ivan was a contemporary of Elizabeth the First of England. Ivan began his reign as a three year old at the death of his father and only slowly was able to wrest authority from the nobles who ruled in his name. His first attempt at independent action set the tone of his long and infamous career. At the age of thirteen Ivan ordered the arrest of one of leaders of the faction that were struggling for power at court. Prince Andrey Shuysky was then brutally murdered by the keeper of Ivan's dogs. He once had the tongue cut from the mouth of an impertinent nobleman who dared to criticize him.

 

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Kim Philby, Spying for the Other Side II

Lead: As a student at Cambridge in the 1930s, Kim Philby was infused with an intellectual, emotional and life-long commitment to communism. That made him a willing recruit into the ranks of the Soviet espionage service.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Philby and his friends, Donald MacLean, Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt were true believers. Philby’s career was perhaps the most exotic. At the instruction of his Soviet handlers, after his University years, he began to tack in a rightward direction in conversation, beliefs and political connections. This was to disguise and make possible his recruitment into British intelligence. His stint as a pro-Franco journalist covering the Spanish Civil War led through Burgess to his enrollment in the ranks of first MI5 then the sabotage and subversion division of MI6.

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Kim Philby, Spying for the Other Side I

Lead: Polished and elegant, with upper-class education and heritage, Kim Philby in the 1940s rose in the ranks of British intelligence. He was, however, spying for the other side.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Harold Adrian Russell Philby grew up in India. Early on his father, a fixture in the British Civil Service there gave him the name Kim, after a Rudyard Kipling character. While studying at Trinity College, Cambridge in the mid-1930s, Philby came under the influence of Professor Maurice Dodd. His mentor reinforced in the boy a powerful trend among intellectuals in that decade. Many of them looked at the socialist experiment in the Soviet Union and believed they had discovered the future, a system that would transform mankind for the better. Ignoring the corrupt, inefficient, brutal and oppressive character of Stalinism, they became quiet, and sometimes not so quiet, champions of communism. Kim Philby became a life-long true believer.

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