Augustine II

Lead: In AD 386 an official orator in the imperial city of Milan, Italy, Augustine, his intellectual system in tatters and his personal life in shambles, reached a life-changing conclusion.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When the ambitious new teacher of rhetoric arrived in the imperial capital, he paid a courtesy call on Ambrose, the local Christian bishop. The younger man was impressed with the Bishop’s demeanor, teaching ability and the honor in which the entire community held him. This encounter set in motion the steps leading to Augustine’s conversion to Christianity. He eventually became a priest and, in 395 Bishop of the City of Hippo a North African diocese in what is present-day Algeria.

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Augustine I

Lead: One of the most influential thinkers in the history of Christianity was Aurelius Augustinius. He became a bishop, but his lifestyle was not always that of a devout believer.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The future Bishop of Hippo was born in the city of Thagaste or Souk Ahas, in Numidia, an ancient North African kingdom covering what is now Algeria. His family was socially prominent, but not particularly wealthy. From the beginning Augustine was a handful, a troublesome boy, given to cheating and physical combat, bright, but not very interested in his studies. He was the pride and the heartbreak of his young mother Monica, whose Christianity held little appeal to Augustine or his elderly father Patricius.

 

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Vatican Museums II

Lead: One of the world's greatest art collections was inaugurated by Pope Julius II five hundred years ago with the purchase of a white marble statue of an ancient Trojan priest, Laocoon.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Within the walls of Vatican City is a group of connected buildings collectively known as the Vatican Palace. This complex houses several museums and galleries, a vast library, and the departments and administrative offices of the Papal bureaucracy. Since the time of Pope Julius, at the beginning of the 1500s, however, popes have also commissioned and purchased the finest art work, from antiquity to the Renaissance to modern religious art for Vatican collection. The finest architects and artists of the Italian Renaissance designed the buildings and filled the interiors with statuary, rich ornamentation and frescoes. At the center of Vatican City is St. Peter's Basilica. It can hold 60,000 people and was constructed with significant contributions by Bramante, Raphael, Bernini, and Michelangelo. Perhaps, the greatest artistic treasure is Michelangelo’s -- the frescoes on the walls and ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.  

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Vatican Museums I

Lead: The smallest independent nation-state in the world was created in 1929. The 110 acres of Vatican City house the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: With a steady population of about 1,000 residents - clergy, lay people, 100 Swiss Guards and their families - Vatican City is the official residence of the pope and is the governing and religious heart of Roman Catholicism. Its unique status as an independent state resulted from the Lateran Treaty of 1929 in which the papacy gave up its ancient claims to vast areas of central Italy, the so-called Papal States, in exchange for a section of Rome that would be completely sovereign territory -- Vatican City.

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Muslim Conquest of Spain II

Lead: Following the expansionist inclination of the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus, evangelical Islam by 714 had conquered almost all of the Iberian peninsula. In Spain they created a brand new society.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Disunity among Christians, powerful armies, and a sense of spiritual inevitability compelled the armies of God north through Spain and into central France. Everywhere Islam swept all before it. Not until the Christian Franks outflanked and defeated the Muslims at the first Battle of Poitiers in 732, did the Islamic tide recede and retreat.

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Muslim Conquest of Spain I

Lead: The expansion of Islam in the centuries after the Prophet Muhammad’s death flowed east to India and west to the Visigothic kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain had powerful Moorish rule for more than seven centuries.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From 712 to 1492 some part of Spain was under Muslim control. At high tide, Arabs ruled almost all of Iberia. In the end, only Granada, dominated by the massive Alhambra fortress, could resist the Reconquista, the re-conquest of the peninsula, led finally by Christian forces united under Ferdinand and Isabella. The city surrendered in the year Spain turned its attention outward and sent Christopher Columbus on his journey to a new world..

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The Crusades III

Lead: On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II delivered a sermon in Clermont, France. It must have been stirring because it triggered three centuries of violence and conflict in the Middle East – the Crusades.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Church leaders had gathered in the central French city of Clermont for a church council. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I had issued a call for Western help in checking the advance of the Seljuk Turks, a nomadic tribe who had swept from their central Asian homeland in the 11th century, had converted to Islam, and had recently conquered much Byzantine territory. The actual text of Urban’s sermon does not survive, though several accounts emerged in later years with varying themes. All seem to agree it was a passionate narrative and was enthusiastically received. The crowd in and outside of the Cathedral were reported to have shouted “Deus lo volt” or “God wills it.”

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Arrest of the Five Members

Lead: In early 1641, Parliament and King Charles I of England had reached a dangerous impasse.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Taxation, the war with Scotland, the rights of Parliament, and royal manipulation of the courts were among the subjects of a contentious and sometimes bitter struggle between a majority of the House of Commons and the government of Charles I, but it was religion that generated much of the passion of those years. For nearly a century, the Puritans, a minority in the Church of England, had been agitating for an end to corruption in the clergy, a simpler form of church worship, and greater control of congregations by the local churches.

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