Loving vs. Virginia II

Lead: In 1924, because of deep-seated white racism and growing out of the now-discredited concept of eugenics, Virginia passed the Racial Integrity Act. It lasted 43 years.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: During the Civil War, in an effort to pin the label of race mixing on Republicans, Democrats published in New York a fake pamphlet advocating miscegenation, the sexual intermixing of white and black races. Unfortunately, before the pamphlet was demonstrated to be a hoax in 1864, the vile word miscegenation entered American social and political discourse. Beginning in the 1880s, particularly in the former Confederate states, laws were passed to attempt to blunt the effects of Constitutional amendments thirteen, fourteen, and fifteen, and maintain African American second-class citizenship. One such law was Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act (1924). It was for violation of this prohibition against interracial marriage or interracial sexual intercourse that Mildred Jeter Loving and Richard Loving were arrested, convicted and banished from the Commonwealth in 1959.

Loving vs. Virginia I

Lead: In summer 1958 the long arm of Virginia law propelled by generations of racial animus reached out to ensnare Richard and Mildred Loving.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: On a warm night in mid-July, Caroline County Sheriff R. Garnet Brooks and two deputies invaded the bedroom of the sleeping Lovings. The cops asked why the two were in bed together. Mildred said, “I am his wife.” When Richard Loving pointed to their District of Columbia marriage license hanging on the wall, Brooks said, “That’s no good here.” They were arrested and hauled off to jail.

Eugenics II

Lead: From its start as an optimistic approach to improving the human condition, eugenics degenerated into a racist tool in the hands of bigotry and ultimately led to the gas ovens of the Third Reich.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The fundamental problem with eugenics, even as Sir Francis Galton articulated it in the 19th century, was that it focused primarily on inborn characteristics and almost completely disregarded social, environmental, educational, and physical factors when examining the human race. Basically, eugenicists advocated a form of genetic determinism. A person is born with a genetic imprint that determines the course of their lives. Not surprisingly these theories became a powerful tool in the hands of racists. It all depends on who is setting the standard. If society is to improve itself, it is said, it must eliminate genetic threats to racial purity. In the sad history of eugenics, a wide variety of groups have been singled out for social restriction, sterilization, or elimination. Feeble-minded or mentally ill people, habitual criminals, sexual libertines, Negroes, Native Americans or any non-whites, Jews, gypsies, and evangelical Christians have all fallen under the wary and sometimes fatal scrutiny of the eugenic mandate. They bore undesirable human traits.

Eugenics I

Lead: In the 19th and 20th centuries, theories about the way to improve the human condition spawned the pseudo-science of eugenics. Unfortunately, optimism about making mankind better degenerated into the darkness of racism.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Sir Francis Galton confessed to having had a happy childhood. His upper-class parents gave him a Cambridge education though he never took his degree, and left him sufficient inherited funds so that he could avoid work and indulge his great love of travel. From 1845 to 1853 Galton explored parts of the Middle East and Africa, including a very careful but ultimately fruitless expedition from West Africa in search of Lake Ngami, which is in Botswana, north of the Kalahari Desert. After his marriage he turned to more scholarly pursuits producing books on a wide variety of subjects including fingerprinting, calculus, genetics and weather prediction. Galton is best known, however, for his advocacy of improving the human species through selective parenting, a process he called eugenics.

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Confederados III

Lead: After the Civil War many Southern diehards, instead of submitting to federal occupation, migrated to Brazil.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the spring of 1972, then Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter made an official visit to Brazil. One of the most interesting parts of his tour was the City of Americana, with a modern population of 160,000. There Mr. Carter was greeted by descendants of the town founders, Confederates who came south after the U.S. Civil War. He gave a speech at a cemetery where American, Brazilian, and Confederate flags were displayed prominently.

The original immigration came during 1867-1868. They settled on large tracts of land provided cheaply by the Brazilian government, aware that their success might provoke an even larger wave of Southerners, perhaps as much as 100,000. By 1870 it was clear that no such mass movement would occur. Most of those remaining in the South, like Robert E. Lee, were fitfully accommodating themselves to the changes in the New South and denounced any suggestion of departure.

Confederados II

Lead: Horrified at the prospect of defeat, emancipated slaves, economic devastation, and Yankee occupation, in the years following the Civil War some Southerners emigrated to Mexico, to the Caribbean, and to South America.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While most leaders such as Robert E. Lee counseled gracious acceptance of defeat and accommodation to the New South, others were bitter and determined to leave. They were animated by the sentiments expressed in a song popular among whites in the South in the years following the war, a verse of which reads:

Confederados I

Lead: As the dreams of an independent Confederacy crumbled under the relentless assault of the Federal war machine, people North and South began to imagine what life would be like in a Southland humbled by defeat.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Union leaders given to mercy and forgiveness like Abraham Lincoln were prepared to accept the Southerners as if they had never been away. Lincoln, the long-suffering leader of a victorious cause, just might have been able to pull it off. He wanted to quickly restore the South to full participation in the life of the Republic with as little damage as possible beyond that directly associated with the military campaigns.

1968: The Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. II

Introduction: A Moment in Time, 1968: A special series on the 40th anniversary of a year of upheaval, in a world seemingly out of control.

Content: In early April 1968 the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. flew back to Memphis, Tennessee where, in his absence on March 28th, protests in support of a garbage workers strike had turned violent. He had been leading the protests and was determined to cool things off and enforce his brand of non-violent agitation.

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