Anthony Ashley Cooper II

Lead: Firmly out of royal favor, in the 1670s, English peer the Earl of Shaftesbury turned to politics to try and prevent a Catholic from sitting on the throne.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: By the early 1670s, it was becoming clear that King Charles and his Portuguese Queen were going to be childless. This heightened the national concern over the issue of succession. With no royal heir, upon the King’s death, the crown would go to the King’s younger brother, James, Duke of York, a thorough-going Roman Catholic. Ashley, following the nation, opposed this vigorously in and out of Parliament. He supported the Test Act (1673) which required office holders, including the King, to take Anglican Communion. When James refused said communion at Easter 1673 and then married the Italian duchess, Mary of Modena, that same year, anti-Catholic fever began to grip the country. James’ first wife, Anne Hyde, had died in 1671, but their daughters and future Queens, Mary and Anne, had been raised Protestant.

 

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Anthony Ashley Cooper I

Lead: Clever of mind and action and flexible in his alliances in a time of great change in England, Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper served as an early model for the modern politician.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Supple might be a good word to describe the political career of Lord Ashley. He was one of the most interesting and controversial English politicians in the years before and after the Restoration of monarchy in 1660. Born into wealth and prominence on both sides of his family in 1621, he fought for the King in the early days of the English Civil Wars. He then switched sides and served as a local officer of Parliamentary forces in Dorset, served Oliver Cromwell as member of Parliament and on the Commonwealth Council of State, gradually soured on the arbitrary and repressive military politics of Cromwell and the Protectorate, then switched sides again just in time to help make possible the Restoration of King Charles II.

 

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Yugoslavia II

Lead: In the years after World War II, Yugoslavia was able to find a rough unity because of the power and personality of war hero and national Marxist Josip Broz Tito.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After the Axis invasion in 1941, Yugoslavia was split between the invading powers. Bosnia was a German province and the rest of the country was divided between Germany, Bulgaria, Italy and Hungary. Croatia attained special status as a Nazi satellite state ruled by the Ustaše, formerly a fascist party. With German backing the Ustaše dominated Croatia and as many as 500,000 people, mostly Serbs, were executed, an atrocity that remains a source of resentment in a region noted for its long memory.

 

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Yugoslavia I

Lead: Yugoslavia was an artifice, pan-Slavic construct in Southern Europe. It was a dream in the minds of its creators that failed to set aside the centrifugal force of nationalism.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Balkans are roughly ranged along the ancient tectonic line of division between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, but the ethnic, religious and nation divisions that animated that troubled region go back even further. In the heady days at the end of World War I, with empires crashing, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was formed to bring together into a national entity all the rich variety of ethnic groups in the region, eventually including Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, Albanians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Macedonians, and Montenegrins and by this hopefully tamp down some of the tensions that, in part, dragged Europe into that most terrible, and some might say useless, of conflicts in 1914.

 

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Americans and Taxation I

Lead: On February 3, 1913, the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution was adopted – making the income tax a permanent part of life in the United States.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the Civil War, the United States government relied heavily on tariffs (the taxes on imported goods) for revenue. Although the Constitution prohibited the government from imposing a direct tax on citizens, in 1862, during the Civil War, Congress passed an act which authorized the collection of the income tax in order to help finance a war that was costing the United States treasury one million dollars a day by 1862. With the Republic under threat, resistance to the income tax was not widespread. The wartime emergency income tax was reduced after the war and repealed in 1872.

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Samuel Johnson and the Anti-American Toryism

Lead:  About Americans, Samuel Johnson, ever the snobbish Tory, didn’t hesitate to highlight what he considered to be that race’s utter hypocrisy when braying about liberty and freedom, "How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?"

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the 18th Century British political parties were just taking shape. There were two main political groupings, Tories and Whigs. A century later these coalesced into the Conservative and the Liberal parties.

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