The Nez Perce War II

Lead: Considered among the most cooperative and adaptable of the Native American tribes in the western territories, in the summer and fall of 1877 a part of the Nez Perce stopped being cooperative.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: For many years the Nez Perce had inhabited tribal homelands in Eastern Oregon and Washington and western Idaho. Under the pressure of white ranchers and miners their hunting and grazing lands reserved by treaty with the United States had been shrinking. In 1877 they were about to shrink again this time under force. Chief Joseph, leader of a clan who had yet to participate in the treaty process and whose ancestral home along the Wallowa River in Eastern Oregon was about to disappear, had at last reluctantly agreed to move his people to the reservation in Idaho.

The Nez Perce War I

Lead: Faced with an order for their removal, part of the Nez Perce tribe left their reservation in western Idaho and made a break for freedom.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: From their first contact with Lewis and Clark in 1805, the Nez Perce, who adopted the name pierced nose, given them by French-Canadian traders, had good relations with their white neighbors. They were considered a quiet, civil people and many were converted to Christianity in the 1840s by American missionaries. Often the Nez Perce were allies with United States forces in subduing other tribal groups.

 

Sam Houston III

Lead: After leading Texas to its independence from Mexico, Sam Houston spent the rest of his life deeply engaged in the state’s affairs and finally achieved a measure of a happiness in his personal life.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Houston was the overwhelming choice to be President of the new Republic when Texas achieved its independence from Mexico in 1836. Through two terms Houston conspired to have the United States annex Texas. It did not happen on his watch, but from the time it did transpire in 1845, Houston served Texas as one of its US senators. He was one of the few senators who consistently argued against Secession. Though elected once more as Governor in 1859, he was largely marginalized, and when, in March 1861, he refused a loyalty oath to the Confederacy, the Secession convention summarily deposed him.

Sam Houston II

Lead: His marriage to Eliza Allen in tatters for mysterious reasons and hounded by malicious gossip, Governor Sam Houston of Tennessee resigned in disgrace and headed west to pick up the pieces of his life.
Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan RobertsContent: As a youth, Sam Houston had spent three years with the Cherokees and grown to love their life and culture. With his 1829 marriage over and his political career imploding, Houston headed crossed the Mississippi into Arkansas, found healing in the company of many of his old Indian companions, particularly that of the stunning and lovely Tiana Rogers, ancestor of Will Rogers, but he also medicated himself against depression with lots of liquor. For a time the Indians took to calling him The Drunk.

Sam Houston I

Lead: In the course of a remarkable career, Sam Houston was a war hero, a Governor, President of a sovereign nation, and member of the U.S. House and Senate. He was hated and loved – a true American original.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Born of prosperous planters in Rockbridge County, Virginia in 1793, at the death of his father, Houston migrated with his mother and siblings to Tennessee. He was ill-suited for farm life and after a brief turn at business, escaped into the woods where he began a life-long fascination with Native Americans and their culture. He spent three years with the Cherokee, was adopted by a highly respected clan chief and received the Indian name, The Raven. This sojourn with the Indians affected Houston profoundly in that for the rest of his life, despite his service in the Creek Campaigns of Andrew Jackson, his sympathies and concern would lie with the Indians in their losing battle against the onslaught of white civilization.

America’s First Century: Algonquian Annihilation

Lead: Throughout history there have been large human migrations, during which there were often winners and losers. In seventeenth century Virginia, the big losers were Native Americans.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Mass migration happens for a variety of reasons. Economic greed or economic opportunity, imperialism, ideology or religion, hunger, disease, climate change, or any number of reasons, can cause a large number of people to leave their homes and move to a new place. If the numbers favor the immigrants, the old society is swamped and many may die.

Trail of Tears II

Lead: Despite their willingness to become more like the white majority in the 1830s the Cherokee were removed from the mountains of the South and sent to Oklahoma.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1802 the state of Georgia gave up its claims to Alabama and Mississippi territory. In return, the federal government promised to resettle Native Americans in the West. By the late 1820s this had not been done and newly elected President Andrew Jackson was sympathetic with Georgia's position. In his first message to Congress asked that it to provide for the removal of the Cherokee. Sensing victory the state of Georgia passed a series of laws that abolishing Cherokee government and dividing Cherokee land to be distributed by lottery to Georgia citizens. The Cherokee took their case to the Supreme Court and the Court declared in favor of the Indians. Georgia refused to recognize Supreme Court jurisdiction and Jackson refused to enforce the law.

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Trail of Tears I

Lead: Often a nation's actions don't live up to its ideals.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The record of the United States in dealing with Native Americans is a mixed one. National policy toward the Indians, often idealistic and well-meaning in its intention, has been punctuated with broken treaties, untruths and often intentional disregard for human and property rights. The experience of the Cherokee was particularly dramatic. More than any most tribes, the Cherokee attempted to adjust themselves to the ever expanding American culture.

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