Battle of Wounded Knee II

Lead: The last major action in the Indian Wars was a major mistake, a culmination of fear, frustration, misunderstanding and false assumptions.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek in late December 1890 happened resulted from a religious revival among certain clans of the Sioux Confederation and a long-running dispute between the Indian Bureau, part of the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Army.

 

 

Battle of Wounded Knee I

Lead: The last major armed conflict between whites and Native Americans ended on December 29, 1890 along Wounded Knee creek.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the cold early morning hours of December 29, 1890 elements of 7th and 9th United States Cavalry surrounded approximately 350 Miniconjous Sioux led by Big Foot camped at Wounded Knee twenty miles from the Pine Ridge Indian reservation in southwestern South Dakota. Within a brief time over 150 Sioux had been killed with another 44 wounded about half were women and children. More would later die of exposure. Army casualties were not small. Over 60 troopers were wounded or killed. In retrospect, such a high sacrifice of life on both sides made little sense. It resulted from broken promises, emotional despair, faulty expectations, professional ineptitude, and bureaucratic infighting.

 

 

The Nez Perce War II

Lead: Considered among the most cooperative and adaptable of the Native American tribes in the western territories, in the summer and fall of 1877 a part of the Nez Perce stopped being cooperative.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: For many years the Nez Perce had inhabited tribal homelands in Eastern Oregon and Washington and western Idaho. Under the pressure of white ranchers and miners their hunting and grazing lands reserved by treaty with the United States had been shrinking. In 1877 they were about to shrink again this time under force. Chief Joseph, leader of a clan who had yet to participate in the treaty process and whose ancestral home along the Wallowa River in Eastern Oregon was about to disappear, had at last reluctantly agreed to move his people to the reservation in Idaho.

The Nez Perce War I

Lead: Faced with an order for their removal, part of the Nez Perce tribe left their reservation in western Idaho and made a break for freedom.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: From their first contact with Lewis and Clark in 1805, the Nez Perce, who adopted the name pierced nose, given them by French-Canadian traders, had good relations with their white neighbors. They were considered a quiet, civil people and many were converted to Christianity in the 1840s by American missionaries. Often the Nez Perce were allies with United States forces in subduing other tribal groups.

 

Sam Houston III

Lead: After leading Texas to its independence from Mexico, Sam Houston spent the rest of his life deeply engaged in the state’s affairs and finally achieved a measure of a happiness in his personal life.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Houston was the overwhelming choice to be President of the new Republic when Texas achieved its independence from Mexico in 1836. Through two terms Houston conspired to have the United States annex Texas. It did not happen on his watch, but from the time it did transpire in 1845, Houston served Texas as one of its US senators. He was one of the few senators who consistently argued against Secession. Though elected once more as Governor in 1859, he was largely marginalized, and when, in March 1861, he refused a loyalty oath to the Confederacy, the Secession convention summarily deposed him.

Sam Houston II

Lead: His marriage to Eliza Allen in tatters for mysterious reasons and hounded by malicious gossip, Governor Sam Houston of Tennessee resigned in disgrace and headed west to pick up the pieces of his life.
Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan RobertsContent: As a youth, Sam Houston had spent three years with the Cherokees and grown to love their life and culture. With his 1829 marriage over and his political career imploding, Houston headed crossed the Mississippi into Arkansas, found healing in the company of many of his old Indian companions, particularly that of the stunning and lovely Tiana Rogers, ancestor of Will Rogers, but he also medicated himself against depression with lots of liquor. For a time the Indians took to calling him The Drunk.

Sam Houston I

Lead: In the course of a remarkable career, Sam Houston was a war hero, a Governor, President of a sovereign nation, and member of the U.S. House and Senate. He was hated and loved – a true American original.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Born of prosperous planters in Rockbridge County, Virginia in 1793, at the death of his father, Houston migrated with his mother and siblings to Tennessee. He was ill-suited for farm life and after a brief turn at business, escaped into the woods where he began a life-long fascination with Native Americans and their culture. He spent three years with the Cherokee, was adopted by a highly respected clan chief and received the Indian name, The Raven. This sojourn with the Indians affected Houston profoundly in that for the rest of his life, despite his service in the Creek Campaigns of Andrew Jackson, his sympathies and concern would lie with the Indians in their losing battle against the onslaught of white civilization.

America’s First Century: Algonquian Annihilation

Lead: Throughout history there have been large human migrations, during which there were often winners and losers. In seventeenth century Virginia, the big losers were Native Americans.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Mass migration happens for a variety of reasons. Economic greed or economic opportunity, imperialism, ideology or religion, hunger, disease, climate change, or any number of reasons, can cause a large number of people to leave their homes and move to a new place. If the numbers favor the immigrants, the old society is swamped and many may die.