Miracle of Anesthesia I

Lead: The practice of surgery was a brutal affair and lagged behind other sciences because people could not stand the pain.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The scientific revolution kicked into high gear during the years between 1500 and 1800. Galileo popularized the work of Copernicus the Polish scholar who insisted that the sun rather than the earth lay at the center of the solar system. William Harvey described the circulation of blood and Sir Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest thinkers, gave the universe a philosophical order and contributed to the development of calculus and higher mathematics. Botany, biology, and chemistry also enjoyed a time of advancement and new fields related to medicine, including bacteriology and nutritional science, emerged from this period of intellectual ferment. However, the practice of surgery lagged far behind its companion sciences. There could be little regular exploration or cure of diseased living human flesh until there was invented an effective pain killer. Most people would rather bear the illness or die than endure the torment associated with a surgical cure.

First Human Heart Transplantation II

Lead: Building on two centuries of research and experimentation, South African Dr. Christaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Though he was the first surgeon to successfully transplant a human heart, Dr. Barnard was using a technique developed by an American team at Stanford University Medical Center, led by surgeon Norman Shumway, who was considered by many to be the father of heart transplantation. In 1958 Shumway had transplanted the first heart in a dog. He and his associates had spent most of the early 1960s developing heart-lung machines and progressively removing the obstacles to organ transplantation. By the middle of the decade only the issue of immunosuppression seemed to be blocking the way. The body of the patient had a natural tendency to reject donor tissue as an alien to be destroyed.

First Human Heart Transplantation I

Lead: In December 1967, surgeons in South Africa performed the first human heart transplant. 53-year-old Lewis Washkansky survived for 18 days.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The work of Dr. Christiaan Barnard in transplanting the heart of 25-year-old auto accident victim Denise Durvall into Washkansky built on more than two centuries of experimentation in immunology and surgery. This progress was enhanced by the late 19th-century work on antibodies by Paul Ehrlich, the blood typing research of Karl Landsteiner in 1900, and Ilya Metchnikoff’s theory of host rejection.

The Doctors Mayo

Lead: On December 12, 1879 the Rochester, Minnesota "Record and Union" announced that the first telephone line in town had been set up between Dr. Mayo's farm and his office above Geisinger and Newton's Drug Store. Another innovation by the founder of the most famous medical family in United States history.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: William Worrall Mayo was born in 1819 at the beginning of a decade of great political and social discontent in Manchester, England. While serving as a medical apprentice in Glasgow he met a young post-graduate physician from Philadelphia who re-enforced in Mayo the desire to seek a future in the United States rich, and distant with room to spare for an ambitious young man.

History’s Turning Points: The End of Chastity II

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s turning points – conspirators in the death of chastity.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In his 1960 novel Where the Boys Are, Clendon Swarthout mused that “virginity was not all that important…nor do I think a girl’s misplacing it somewhere is as catastrophic as the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.” Perhaps not, but for thousands of years prior, chastity was very important, for families, for religious institutions, for dynastic security. Men might not have to maintain theirs, a classic double standard, but much energy was expended to make sure that females were chaste. Yet, within just a few short decades, it just went away, something considered so precious in previous generations was abandoned with a near careless lack of restraint.

History’s Turning Points: The End of Chastity I

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s great social turning points – the death of chastity.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The expectation that a woman had to remain chaste, a virgin, until marriage or at least until engagement, had been around for millennia. The purpose of sex had been to make babies, propagate the species, extend the family, and in that process women were seen to play the essential role, the depository of the seed of life. It was thought that female chastity was essential. That the other half of the population, the male half, was not expected to maintain quite the same level of virtuous existence became increasingly seen as a double-standard in the modern era. Suddenly women had an ally, a tiny chemical wafer – the Pill - that helped redress an ancient gender imbalance. Now the act of sex could be severed from procreation. The rules governing chastity were being repealed. The invention and wide availability of the Pill sat upon one of history’s great turning points.

Patrick Henry’s Personal Trauma

Lead: At the time Patrick Henry gave his famous speech at St. John's Church in Richmond in March 1775, few people knew of the personal tragedy through which his family was going.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

At the moment the patriot leader was calling for arming the Virginia militia, his wife was at home suffering a severe mental illness.

The son of Henry's physician later wrote that while Henry was arousing a nation to arms, "his soul was bowed down and bleeding under the heaviest sorrows and personal distress." Mrs. Henry's dementia was so acute that she had to be restrained in a basement room and placed in a strait dress to prevent her from taking her own life. Each day, Henry opened the trap-door in the hall near the entrance to the house and went down to feed her himself.  

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Abuse of ADHD Drugs II

Lead: The increase in the diagnosis of children with A.D.H.D. has led to an increase in the abuse of the drugs used to treat the disorder.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: During the first two decades of the twenty-first century, children and young adults have presented Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) in increasing numbers. The abusive use of those drugs used to treat A.D.H.D has seen a parallel increase during this period. Adderall, Adderall XR, Ritalin, and Vyvance are the primary medications in combatting the disorder as well as being the drugs of choice in enhancing recreational pleasure, academic and athletic performance. In the 2012 Stolz study almost 5% of eighth graders, 8.5% of tenth graders, and at least 10% of twelfth graders have used Adderall with or without a prescription. An estimated 25% of college students admit to an illicit use of the drug to help them focus on their academic work, particularly as they face end of semester deadlines. Often in the past students accessed University health clinics which were easier to engage than an outside psychiatrist, but as abuse has grown, Universities have become much more restrictive, making students undergo a lengthy process prior to prescription and including contracts promising not to sell or share their pills with friends.