The Paris Commune – III

Lead: Besieged by German armies on one side and the government of France on the other, the Paris Commune in the spring of 1871 fought for its life.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Angered at the conservative French government of Adolphe Thiers, which they accused of accepting humiliating terms in the treaty ending the Franco-Prussian War, the citizens of Paris expelled the duly elected Assembly and formed a commune, an early socialist form of urban government. While instituting radical reforms such as the separation of church and state and establishing free public schools, the Paris Commune fought off attacks from Thiers regular army forces based in Versailles.

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The Paris Commune – Part II

Lead:  Angered over the humiliating treaty its government signed with the German's at the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the people of Paris formed a city-wide commune.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The government of Adolphe Thiers, elected in the wake of the French defeat at the hands of the Germans in 1871 was very conservative. Dominated by rural interests it was opposed to the socialist tendencies of revolutionary Paris and began asserting its authority in a showdown with the City based National Guard.

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The Paris Commune – Part I

Lead: Besieged by Prussian armies and its own national government, in 1871 the City of Paris drew up behind barricades and for several exciting weeks of social experiment, constituted itself as an independent commune.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The story of the Paris Commune begins not with a Frenchman but a German, the Chancellor of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck. Originally opposed to the idea of a German nation, Bismarck had been converted when it became clear that Prussia not Austria could be the dominant force in any union of the many small German states. He needed a galvanizing force and found it a war with France.

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Raoul Wallenberg: Angel of Life – III

Lead: Using unorthodox methods, Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat posted to Budapest in late 1944, helped save over 100,000 Hungarian Jews from deportation and certain death.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Backed by his government and cash, Wallenberg took advantage of his position and wartime conditions to spare extract many thousands from the flood being taken to the death camps. He used three important techniques.

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Raoul Wallenberg: Angel of Life – II

Lead: Near the end of World War II, using unorthodox methods, the Swedish diplomat, Raoul Wallenberg helped save thousands of Hungarian Jews from death in the concentration camps.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: By the early months of 1944, Nazi atrocities against the Jews could no longer be ignored. With mounting horror allied and neutral governments began to take tentative steps help those threatened by the Nazi Final Solution.

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Raoul Wallenberg: Angel of Life I

Lead:  In the annals of heroic rescue, no story shines as bright as that of Raoul Wallenberg. Thousands of Hungarian Jews owe him their lives.

            Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts. 

           Content: Born into a large and prominent Swedish family long known for its government and diplomatic service, Wallenberg studied architecture at the University of Michigan during the early 1930s.

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Science Matters: Fritz Haber and the Nitrogen Cycle- I

Lead: By 1900 world population was beginning to outstrip agricultural capacity. Farmers could not grow enough to feed the people. Then Fritz Haber solved the nitrogen problem.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The three main nutrients required for successfully growing plants are potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Good top soil contains them in sufficient amounts to grow crops, but after long use, soil becomes depleted of these ingredients and must be renewed. Potassium and phosphorus are economically available in sufficient quantities to be put back easily, but nitrogen is not. Nitrogen is in the air. It is a gas that is a large part of the atmosphere. Getting it into the soil for plant synthesis is very difficult. Traditional farmers added plant clippings and animal waste, rotated crops or planted legumes such as beans or lintels, so-called green manure, to restore the soil and increase yields. Traditional agriculture could not keep up with an exploding world’s population. Farmers were losing the battle.

 

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