Quest for Mt. Everest III

Lead: After repeated pre-war attempts, in the early 1950s Mt. Everest finally bent to repeated assaults. The mountain was scaled by New Zealand beekeeper, Edmund Hillary, and Sherpa guide, Tensing Norgay.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: After World War II, Communist China invaded Tibet and blocked exploration of Everest from the North. The southern approaches were taken through Nepal and a reconnaissance expedition was mounted by that route in 1951 by the Brits. The following year two strong Swiss teams attempted to scale the mountain in the Spring and Fall but were stopped by severe weather both times just short of the summit.

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Quest for Mt. Everest II

Lead: The challenge of Mt. Everest was clear from the time its height was determined in the 1800s, but attempts to reach the summit are not known to have begun until the 1920s.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The peak of Mt. Everest is one of earth’s most hostile places. The air is thin. No crops can be grown there. No domestic animals can live there. Any attempt on the summit would require taking along those things necessary to sustain life. Long months of adaptation to the high altitude, supplementary oxygen in tanks, food and water would have to be dragged up nearly impassible terrain which, in the early days, no one had ever crossed. The key to the eventual success of the assault on Everest was a nomadic people, Tibetan-speaking clans who struggled for survival on the lower slopes of the mountain by trading and herding livestock. These are the Sherpa. They were capable of carrying the large loads of supplies that made the climb possible.

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Quest for Mt. Everest I

Lead: The highest point on earth is the peak of Mt. Everest, part of a geologic eruption along the crest of the Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet. Until 1953 no one had been able to go up there.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It is known as Chomolungma, Goddess Mother of the World, and it towers 29,035 feet above sea level, dwarfing the glaciers that wrap themselves around its base. Until 1852 when its true height was determined at a distance by an India surveyor, the mountain was known simply as Peak 15. In 1865, it was named for Sir George Everest, previously Surveyor General of India.

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Voyage of Magellan IV

Lead: Seeking a passage through the American land mass as a short cut to the rich spice islands of East Asia, Ferdinand Magellan and a crew sailed south along the coast of South America in the early months of 1520, looking for strait to take them through.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While wintering in San Julian, a harbor in present day southern Argentina, three of his captains led a mutiny that threatened the expedition, but Magellan ruthlessly suppressed it, killing one leader, beheading another and leaving the third stranded on the beach. The rest of the mutineers Magellan wisely pardoned.

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Voyage of Magellan III

Lead: Commissioned by King Charles I of Spain to find a short cut through the Americas to the islands of southeast Asia, Ferdinand Magellan in command of five ships left the Spanish port of Seville in August, 1519. Thus began one of history's greatest voyages of exploration.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Prior to the voyages of Columbus beginning in 1492 and the systematic exploration of Africa by the Portuguese in the 1480s and 90s, Europeans had little accurate information about the earth's size. Their knowledge was based on the theories of the second century Greek writer Ptolomy who underestimated it. Because of this geographers were convinced that Japan and China lay only a few thousand miles west of Europe. Columbus's trips proved those estimates to be wrong. With the first accounts of Vasco de Balboa who reported finding a new Pacific Ocean on the other side of the new world in 1513, it appeared that the earth was quite large indeed.

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Voyage of Magellan II

Lead: In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan sailed from the port of Seville in Spain. Three years later one of his ships returned, having circumnavigated the globe. Such a voyage was possible because of a revolution in the technology of exploration.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: That Europeans should increasingly find themselves on shores far from home came about as a result of advances in the design of ships, expansion in the understanding of navigation and a sea change, as it were, in the way overseas exploration was financed.

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Voyage of Magellan I

Lead: On August 10, 1519, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailing master of noble upbringing in service to the King of Spain, set sail on one of history's greatest voyages of discovery.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1400 Europeans knew little more than the Romans about the rest of the world. The tantalizing stories brought back by exploring merchant traders such as Marco Polo told of an advanced civilization in the Far East. This served to stimulate the European imagination but did little to expand contacts with a much wider world.

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Senator Benton’s Conspiracy

Lead: Thomas Hart Benton had a vision of a vast expansion United States to the West, the problem was that nobody wanted to go there.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Thomas Hart Benton, the Senator from Missouri in the 1830s, wished to push the border of the United States 1000 miles beyond the crest of the Rockies to the Pacific, unfortunately several things stood in the path of his goal. First, Native Americans had rather enjoyed their homelands for centuries and didn't wish to be pushed aside. Second, Mexico controlled vast sections of southwestern North America and were understandably reluctant to turn it over to the United States. Finally, the British shared with the United States, joint occupancy of Oregon territory. The biggest problem however was American apathy. The risks associated with settling the west appeared too great.

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