Baroque Culture Part II

Lead: One of the great influences of the seventeenth century “Baroque” style was the ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church between 1545-1563 – known as the Council of Trent.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: The Baroque era with its rich style, elaborate ornamentation and dramatic design ran from 1600 about to 1750. It began in Italy, spread throughout Europe and across the Atlantic to the Americas. One of the historical events which influenced the artisans of the period was the Counter-Reformation - that is the reaction and the reforms within the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. To counter Protestant success, Pope Paul III convoked an ecumenical council in 1545 in the northern Italian town of Trent hard against the Austrian border.  

 

 

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Baroque Culture I

Lead:  Some of the west’s greatest artists emerged from the Baroque Era – Caravaggio, Vermeer, and Rubens, Bernini, and the composers – Vivaldi, Pachelbel, Bach and Handel.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: “Baroque” refers to a style in the arts as well as to the period when the style was most valued, about 1600 to 1750. As in other historical periods, the descriptive term, baroque, period or style, was not used until much later when scholars chose the name from the Spanish or Portuguese word for an irregularly shaped pearl. That makes perfect sense because the Baroque style in painting, sculpture and architecture, like that odd shaped pearl, was exquisitely beautiful but features bold and curving forms and over-the-top ornamentation. Later the term was also used to refer to literature and music of the same period which followed closely after the Renaissance.

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Yugoslavia II

Lead: In the years after World War II, Yugoslavia was able to find a rough unity because of the power and personality of war hero and national Marxist Josip Broz Tito.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After the Axis invasion in 1941, Yugoslavia was split between the invading powers. Bosnia was a German province and the rest of the country was divided between Germany, Bulgaria, Italy and Hungary. Croatia attained special status as a Nazi satellite state ruled by the Ustaše, formerly a fascist party. With German backing the Ustaše dominated Croatia and as many as 500,000 people, mostly Serbs, were executed, an atrocity that remains a source of resentment in a region noted for its long memory.

 

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Yugoslavia I

Lead: Yugoslavia was an artifice, pan-Slavic construct in Southern Europe. It was a dream in the minds of its creators that failed to set aside the centrifugal force of nationalism.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Balkans are roughly ranged along the ancient tectonic line of division between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, but the ethnic, religious and nation divisions that animated that troubled region go back even further. In the heady days at the end of World War I, with empires crashing, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was formed to bring together into a national entity all the rich variety of ethnic groups in the region, eventually including Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, Albanians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Macedonians, and Montenegrins and by this hopefully tamp down some of the tensions that, in part, dragged Europe into that most terrible, and some might say useless, of conflicts in 1914.

 

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History’s Turning Points: Ambitious Corporal II

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider history’s turning points: the ambitious corporal’s legacy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Napoleon Bonaparte was a daring and effective military commander, yet his lasting legacy may have been off the battlefield. He continued the destruction of aristocratic rule that began with the French Revolution in France and wherever his armies conquered. Though he created a modified aristocracy loyal to him and made himself Emperor of the French, this artifice collapsed when he was defeated and exiled. The Congress of Vienna 1815 tried to put the pieces back together again, but if anything the decades after Napoleon demonstrated a steady collapse of autocracy and the steady flowering of democracy.

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History’s Turning Points: Ambitious Corporal I

 

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider history’s turning points: the ambitious corporal.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: French historian and romantic author, Francois-René Vicomte Chateaubriand, wrote of Napoleon Bonaparte, “the mightiest breath of life which ever animated human clay.” He can be forgiven a flight of hyperbole, but for the first decade of the 19th century there is little doubt that Bonaparte straddled the wide continent of Europe virtually unimpeded. He was the Corsican corporal whose ambition made him Emperor of the French and whose military genius and daring shattered all before him. Yet, perhaps it was not his conquests which were fleeting or his empire which faded at his fall which set Napoleon firmly astride one of history’s great turning points. It was the system of aristocratic rule that he wounded, the legal system that he established wherever his armies conquered, and the dark and vicious concept of nationalism that lingered long after its author perished on St. Helena. Those things transformed him from transitory tyrant to a figure whose influence approaches the eternal.

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1968: Prague Spring III

Introduction: A Moment in Time, 1968: A special series on the 40th anniversary of a year of upheaval, in a world seemingly out of control.

Content: In early August 1968 it seemed as though the Czechs had pulled it off. Following a long series of so-called “staff maneuvers,” and in response to pressure from Czechoslovakian leaders, Soviet troops had withdrawn from the country. Czechs began to breathe a little easier. Their attempt to reform Communism, in the words of Czech Party leader Alexander Dubcek, to put a human face on socialism, no longer seemed under threat. Their euphoria did not last for long.

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Spanish Cultural Diversity II

Lead: Attempts to suppress cultural and religious diversity have been one of the hallmarks of modern Spain. From the work of the Spanish Inquisition to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, these efforts have only lightly covered over real differences. In 1978 Spain tried a new way.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 

                Content: For thirty-six years, the last caudillo, Francisco Franco held his thumb in dike of progress. It was a valiant, but futile attempt at keeping parts of Spanish life, religion, culture, and politics under wraps, while opening the way to economic innovation, outside markets, and prosperity. Franco failed, but it remained to be seen how post-Franco Spain would deal with the changing world outside as well how it would accommodate long-standing and suppressed internal regional conflict.