Battle for Color TV II

Lead: In the 1940s two corporate giants, NBC and CBS, fought over the means of broadcasting television in color.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After World War II, NBC under its chairman, David Sarnoff, had begun commercial black and white television broadcasts and was selling TVs by the truckload. Its great rival, William Paley’s CBS, was producing Black and White shows such as Ed Sullivan but at the same was experimenting with color television in hopes of getting a jump on the competition. The problem was the CBS color system used a spinning wheel with color filters in the camera and in the TV set and produced a signal which could not be received by existing black and white TVs without a relatively expensive converter. Sarnoff had too many sets out there to give up his advantage and began a campaign to smear the CBS system. NBC was working on an all-electronic color system, without the cumbersome spinning wheels, but which they thought would not be ready for years. By 1950 CBS was ready and had applied to the Federal Communications Commission to designate its system as the only standard. Both sides were at it now. Secret meetings with congressmen, lobbying, accusations in the media. Millions were at stake. Finally, the FCC approved CBS color in October 1950 and the courts struck down NBC’s court challenge. The problem was, not a single CBS color set had been sold, just a lot of useless black and white sets.

The Enigma Machine

Lead: When your enemy is stronger and is about to destroy you, the most important thing you need is the information about how he is about to do it.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: During the early years of World War II, Germany and Japanese forces seemed everywhere to be victorious. It quickly became clear that Britain and France and after them, the United States had to break the enemies’ code. 

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Martin Luther Debates Johann Eck – II

Lead: In early years of the Protestant Reformation, public disputations or debates allowed religious leaders explain to their views. In Leipzig in 1519 Martin Luther debated the Catholic champion Johann Eck

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: His original name was Johann Maier but early on changed it to the name of his home village, Egg or Eck.  He received a superb education at the University’s of Heidelberg, Cologne, Freiburg and Tubingen, was ordained, and became lifelong professor of theology at the University of Ingolstadt a small Bavarian town just north of Munich. He developed the reputation as a careful scholar, but one talented in public debate. As contemporaries, Luther and Eck were acquaintances and apparently were on friendly terms, at least until the appearance of Luther's Ninety-five Theses on the question of indulgences.

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Martin Luther Debates Johann Eck – I

Lead: The rhetoric and opinions of Martin Luther helped bring an end to the comfortable religious and political unity of western Europe. His incendiary critique of Roman Catholicism tossed up champions of the Church. One of those was Johann Eck.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When Luther advanced his 95 theses in fall 1517 his desire was to provoke a debate about the role and power of the Roman Catholic Pope, but even further how the believer secures salvation. He had come to believe that no Church ritual, no righteousness on the part of the believer, indeed, no human agent, including priests and popes, could facilitate or mediate that salvation. To Luther, only God by Grace through faith in Christ could save anyone.

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Eleanor of Aquitaine II

Lead: Turned out by one royal husband, the King of France, Eleanor of Aquitaine married his rival, the future King of England.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Strong and independent, Eleanor resisted at each stage of her career the role of quiet docile wife. After a stormy fifteen years in 1152, Louis VII of France had their marriage annulled. Their four daughters remained with the King and Eleanor was sent home to Poitiers a very eligible lady, possibly the richest woman in Europe. Within two months she was married, this time to Henry Plantagenet, the namesake and grandson of the King of England who was at that time pressing his claim to inherit the Crown. A successful invasion of England and the death of his chief rival yielded him the throne. Henry and Eleanor became King and Queen of England in December 1154.

Eleanor of Aquitaine I

Lead: At her father's unexpected death in 1137, fifteen-year-old Eleanor, daughter of Duke Guillaume of Aquitaine, found herself heiress to a huge region of western France. It made one of the most eligible catches in Europe.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In a long and busy life Eleanor would be Queen of France and England, either marry or closely advise four kings, conduct romantic dalliances, engineer rebellions, rule England directly for long stretches of time and this in an era in which women were generally considered at best attractive appendages to their husbands and sons.

Jean Baptiste Colbert – II

Lead: Schooled in the intricate politics of the royal administration of France’s King Louis XIV, Jean Baptiste Colbert had ambitious plans for France’s economy. His hopes were crushed by King’s rush to war.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Colbert served in many capacities over the years, adapting quickly to the King’s desire to build a civil administration based not on connections, wealth or aristocracy, but rather on talent. Colbert gathered many jobs under his wing over the years but his most important was Superintendent of Finance. In that capacity, he revised the tax system, removing many of the exemptions that the nobility enjoyed from paying the taille, a land tax, the principal source of national revenue. He created a new civil office, the intendent, royal agents sent into the provinces to collect taxes and keep the King informed about local public opinion. He helped build Paris into a more modern capital but was frustrated in this by the King’s diversion of enormous sums into the construction of Versailles the magnificent royal lodge in the Paris suburbs.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert I

Lead: Jean-Baptiste Colbert, royal finance minister, was French King Louis XIV closest cabinet advisor. Louis’ war with the Dutch, shot down Colbert’s dreams of making France an economic superpower.

  Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: When his father, Louis XIII, died, the future King was five years old. During the years before he reached maturity, France was wracked by popular unrest and governmental chaos. Once he took the reigns of power, Louis determined that he would not depend on the services of a chief minister as had his father who elevated Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin to unprecedented power. Louis decided to rule France himself and that rule would be iron-fisted, competent and absolute. The closest that one of his servants came to having the chance to wield independent power was Jean-Baptiste Colbert and he had big plans for France.