Blacks in the Gordon Riots – II

Lead: The wave of anti-Catholic riots that ripped apart the City of London in 1780, also gave a unique snapshot of life for blacks in the eighteenth century England.

            Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

            Content: The passage of the Catholic Relief Bill in 1778 aroused in many parts of English society lingering and ugly vestiges of religious bigotry. Lord George Gordon, an eccentric anti-papist, established the Protestant Association, organized street demonstrations and passed petitions urging Parliament to repeal the Relief Bill. Apparently, he did realize the monster he had unleashed. On July 2, 1780 Gordon led a crowd of nearly 50,000 people to the House of Commons to demand repeal. The demonstration morphed into a riot that lasted five days. Buildings including the Bank of England and many jails were damaged, known Catholic businesses were destroyed and life in the vibrant metropolis ground to a halt. Only after King George III ordered troops out and 285 rioters were killed did the disturbances fade and die out.

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Blacks in the Gordon Riots – I

Lead: During the American Revolution, an attempt to increase the civil liberties of English Roman Catholics provoked a storm of protest. For five days in summer of 1780 the City of London was convulsed by the Gordon Riots.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts. 

                Content: Roman Catholics in post-Reformation England suffered near intolerable discrimination. Associated in the English mind with the hostile foreign policy of Catholic Spain and France, Roman Catholics were thought to constitute a fifth column of traitors. The Black Legend asserted that Catholic spies and Catholic subversives were lurking behind every tree. The truth of the matter was that by 1580 under the deft manipulation of Queen Elizabeth I, the tiny minority of Catholics remaining in England were largely domesticated. They were mostly content to worship in private and endured in relative silence the periodic bursts of anti-catholic sentiment and only occasional enforcement of recusancy laws under which those who refused to attend Church of England services had to pay a fine.

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Entente Cordiale – II

Lead: With their dominance of world affairs under challenge, long-term antagonists France and Britain in the 1850s gingerly began to explore the possibilities of alliance. This process was confirmed in 1904 in the Entente Cordiale.

 

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

               

Content: Henry John Temple Palmerston was British Foreign Secretary for most of the period 1830-1851. He also served as Prime Minister in the 1850s. He was the first prominent politician to describe post-1830 Anglo-French relations as entente cordiale, as a warm understanding. In that year France had abandoned forever the old Bourbon monarchy and embarked on a stumbling course towards liberal democracy. Once that happened, Britain, with varying degrees of enthusiasm and not a little skepticism at times, moved toward a closer relationship France. This would not yield an official coalition until early in the next century but with the help of prominent leaders such as Palmerston and, ironically, French President and then Emperor Louis-Napoleon III, France and Britain moved slowly but surely in the direction of alliance. 

 

Madness of King George III – II

Lead: during the last quarter century of his life King George III of Great Britain suffered terrifying episodes of mental illness.  Thought to be manic depression his disease may have been something else entirely.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Beginning in the fall of 1788 and returning three more times 1801, 1804 and 1810, stress and illness would widen into mentally erratic behavior.  The king had suffered from depression at times during his reign but this was different.

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Madness of King George III – I

Lead: In the years following the American Revolution King George III of Great Britain began to experience mental collapse. His disease brought sorrow and confusion to his family and the nation.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content:  During his 60 years as Monarch of Great Britain George William Frederick presided over the acquisition of a great empire, the loss of his American colonies, the defeat of revolutionary and Napoleonic France and the emergence of Britain is one of the leading powers of Europe.  Yet, during the last quarter century of his life, suffered from a recurrent and debilitating mental illness.      

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Jamestown Journey: John Rolfe – II

Lead: In 1616 Mr. and Mrs. John Rolfe and their infant son Thomas, sailed for England. There John and Pocahontas took the country by storm, impressing investors and emigrants with the opportunities to be had in Virginia.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: Through his experimenting with the sweet Caribbean variety of tobacco, John Rolfe had discovered the key to Virginia's economic salvation. His marriage to Pocahontas had secured a welcome respite in tension between Native Americans and the settlers. Two years after their marriage he brought his family with Governor Sir Thomas Dale to England to encourage financial support for the colony and recruitment for settlers.

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The Battle of Crécy – II

Lead: In August 1346, their backs to the River Somme, the rough, hearty, and quite outnumbered peasants of Edward III inflicted a devastating defeat on the cream of French knighthood near the village of Crécy.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: It was supposed to be another summer of cavalry raids and booty taking for the archers and

footmen of King Edward III. For the first 10 years of the Hundred Years’ War years this pattern had been the same: cross the channel, steal rape and pillage, and then off for home, but this summer the French were ready and brought the English army to heel near the village of Crécy near the Somme River.

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The Battle of Crécy – I

Lead: Three great battles framed the Hundred Years’ War.  Crécy, Poitiers,  and Agincourt. For most of the rest of the time, the war was a series of lightening cavalry raids and cross-channel forays painful but not really decisive. Not in 1346 and not at Crécy.  

            Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

            Content: When King Philip VI of France expropriated the vast territories of English King Edward III in France in the 1330s, the Frenchman provoked what has come to be known as the Hundred Years’ War. Even though he had a powerful claim to the French throne himself, Edward was content to forgo those claims and swear allegiance to Philip as his liege Lord. After all, even though Edward was King of England, he still owned, by right of inheritance, Aquitaine, a huge swath of territory in southwestern France. When Philip grabbed his land, Edward reached out for Aquitaine by asserting his own claim to be King of France.

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