Guano

Lead: As world population grew in the years before and after 1800 so did the demand for food. At the same time, much farm acreage was depleted, tired, unproductive. This problem was solved in part with guano.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Guano is bird excrement. Grouped with the droppings of bats and seals, it is perhaps the most potent natural fertilizer, and bird guano is the primo variety containing up to 16% nitrogen, 12% phosphorus, and 3% potassium. In the mid-19th century, guano was treated as if it were gold, provoked at least one fighting war, and made enormous fortunes for growers and suppliers alike.

 

 

 

British General Strike IV

Lead: In the spring of 1926 Britain endured the only General Strike in its history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Labor leaders were frustrated. Led by Walter Citrine of the Trades Union Congress, they wanted to work out a settlement of the looming strike of the mine workers and the possibility of a national sympathy strike, but radical rank and file workers pushed for a confrontation. The conservative government of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin was clearly on the mine owners’ side and had used a nine-month cooling off period to prepare. Labor was not prepared, but when the mine owners locked out their workers and a million of them went on strike, on May 3, 1926, a million and a half transportation, electric, steel and dock workers followed right behind. It was the only time in British history when the vast majority of organized industrial workers gave support to another group of workers for more than one day.

 

British General Strike III

Lead: Wracked by internal divisions, in spring 1926 the labor movement in Britain called the only General Strike in England's history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the early part of the century, unions representing thousands of British industrial workers were locked in a running debate on the way labor should deal with management. Should unions work within the system or assault it from the outside -- confrontation or cooperation? The leaders of the Trades Union Congress, an umbrella group representing many unions and the members of the British Labor Party were in favor of cooperation. Most were socialist in their outlook, but they advocated gradual reform of society. Among rank and file workers however, there were Communists and radicals who considered their leaders wimpish and wished to remake society along Marxist lines. They looked for confrontation. In May 1926 coal miners gave them their chance.

British General Strike II

Lead: In 1926, the British labor movement called the only general work stoppage in that nation's history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: As the 1900s drew to a close, industrial workers in Britain had begun to band themselves together into mass trade unions. Shipbuilding laborers, transportation workers, printers, and a host of other trades organized themselves to protect their interests, improve working conditions, and increase wages. Military needs during World War I had gradually increased the wages of factory workers and when peace broke out these workers resisted attempts by government and business leaders to roll back to prewar levels their hard won gains.

British General Strike I

Lead: British Labor could not make up its mind. As during most of the modern era, conservative and radical impulses struggled in the General Strike of 1926.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The industrial revolution first began in Britain of the 1700s. Driven by the marvelous power of steam, textile and iron production, mining, and transportation were transformed and then helped drag a sometimes reluctant society into the modern age. The growing wealth of the lower and middle classes fueled the first mass economy. Well-made and inexpensive consumer goods were available for the first time in history to wide segments of society and to a world hungry for all sorts of high-quality manufactured items. By 1825, the phrase "Britain supplies the world" was no exaggeration.

Estee Lauder: Beauty Industry Innovator

Lead: The daughter of immigrants, Josephine Esther Mentzer, a.k.a. Estée Lauder set the industry standard for women’s beauty products in 20th Century America.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Esther grew up a borough girl in Queens, the ninth and last child of Max and Rose Mentzer. Early on she became fascinated with the creams and fragrances that her mother used and that her relatives sold in their stores. As a teenager she learned merchandizing and customer relations, caught up as she later wrote, “by pretty things and pretty people.” She learned early on from her Uncle John Schotz the benefits of hands-on selling demonstrating how products worked on the faces and hands of her customers.

Christian Children’s Fund

Lead: From 1937 to 1940 as many as 2,000,000 Chinese children died of starvation in the wake of the Japanese invasion. Calvitt Clarke set out to do something about it.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The twentieth century has borne witness to much progress in technology and at least in some fortunate parts of the world an advance in the standard of living, health and nutrition. But this era has also seen an unprecedented growth in suffering and bloodshed. The specter of total war has at times engulfed the entire world. No longer was the civilian population spared when armies were on the move. Predator governments turned first on their own people then on neighboring nations in what at times seemed to be an endless round of ethnic and ideological conflict.

Malaysia II

Lead: Emerging from a post-colonial crisis in the 1960s, Malaysia is on track by the mid-21st century to be one of the world’s great economies.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After World War II, powerful Malaysian nationalist forces began pressing Britain to grant the archipelago its independence. Britain began the process, but beginning in 1948 mostly Chinese rebels led by the Malayan Communist Party conducted a bloody insurrection known as the Malayan Emergency. Commonwealth troops alongside Malayan nationals put down the rebellion, but it took a dozen years. With the end of the uprising Britain’s rule was over and a federated state was created which included Peninsula Malaysia, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. Singapore departed in 1965 and the remaining government is a federal constitutionally elected monarchy made up of thirteen states and three federal territories. The capital and largest city is Kuala Lumpur though much of the federal administrative apparatus is located 25 kilometers south in the planned city of Putrajaya.