Toussaint L’Ouverture – II

Lead: Drawn into the battle for Haitian independence in 1791, Toussaint L’Ouverture leveraged his military successes into national leadership.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: An instinctive leader, Toussaint combined clever military tactics with a politically moderate disposition. This was in contrast to most of the native leaders who were more interested in exacting revenge on the colonial French than building a new society. By 1793 the French were on the ropes. Success by his guerrilla armies along with attacks by the Spanish who controlled two-thirds of the island and intervention by the British raised the prospect that the French might be thrown off the island.

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Toussaint L’Ouverture – I

Lead: Born a slave, Toussaint L’Ouverture led the fight for Haitian independence.

                Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

                Content: When Christopher Columbus first visited the island he would name La Espanola, it was inhabited by perhaps 1,000,000 natives who lived primarily by agriculture and fishing. By 1697 the western third of the island had been ceded to France by treaty and during the 1700s renamed became one of the Caribbean’s most successful colonies, its prosperity built of sugar, coffee and cotton production on the back of blacks, African slaves.

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Mt. Pelee Erupts II

Lead: During its deadly destruction of the Martinique port city of St. Pierre, Mt. Pelée threw up an unusual form of volcanic eruption, the nuée ardente, or glowing cloud.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Volcanoes come in different forms. Their shape is determined by a variety of factors: the amount, sequence, and contents of what comes out during an eruption and the nature of the vent and land through which it pushes its volcanic product called magma. The perfectly shaped volcanoes such as Mt. Fuji in Japan are called stratovolcanoes because in most cases, over a long period of time, they generate moderate eruptions of ash and lava which are then deposited in layers or strata. Mt. Pelée, a stratavolcano, towers 4500 feet above the northern end of the Caribbean Island of Martinique.

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Mt. Pelee Erupts I

Lead: On the morning of May 8, 1902, a massive cloud of volcanic matter rolled out of the conical summit of Mt. Pelée and plunged toward the coastal city of St. Pierre on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Within minutes the 30,000 citizens of St. Pierre had been incinerated.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Visited by Columbus on his fourth voyage in 1502, Martinique was first settled by Europeans when the French established a colony there in 1635. Except for a few years during wartime, they retained control and French Martinique remains in the twenty-first century. The island was formed by volcanoes, the principal of which was Mt. Pelée, a stratovolcano towering 4500 feet above the northern end of the Island. Until 1902 the chief commercial center of Martinique was the port of St. Pierre three miles distant from Mt. Pelée.

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Mt. Pelee II

Lead: During its deadly destruction of the Martinique port city of St. Pierre, Mt. Pelée threw up an unusual form of volcanic eruption, the nuée ardente, or glowing cloud.Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Volcanoes come in different forms. Their shape is determined by a variety of factors: the amount, sequence, and contents of what comes out during an eruption and the nature of the vent and land through which it pushes its volcanic product called magma. The perfectly shaped volcanoes such as Mt. Fuji in Japan are called stratovolcanoes because in most cases, over a long period of time, they generate moderate eruptions of ash and lava which are then deposited in layers or strata. Mt. Pelée, a stratavolcano, towers 4500 feet above the northern end of the Caribbean Island of Martinique.

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Mt. Pelee I

Lead: On the morning of May 8, 1902, a massive cloud of volcanic matter rolled out of the conical summit of Mt. Pelée and plunged toward the coastal city of St. Pierre on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Within minutes the 30,000 citizens of St. Pierre had been incinerated.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Visited by Columbus on his fourth voyage in 1502, Martinique was first settled by Europeans when the French established a colony there in 1635. Except for a few years during wartime, they retained control and French Martinique remains in the twenty-first century. The island was formed by volcanoes, the principal of which was Mt. Pelée, a stratovolcano towering 4500 feet above the northern end of the Island. Until 1902 the chief commercial center of Martinique was the port of St. Pierre three miles distant from Mt. Pelée.

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Caribbean Holocaust

Lead: On October 12, 1492 the three ships in Christopher Columbus' tiny squadron made land on San Salvador Island in the eastern Bahamas. He found there a handsome indigenous people of peaceful disposition and of efficient agricultural habits. Within fifty years the Arawak or Tainos were all but wiped out.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: He called them, "the best people in the world and above all the gentlest," but Columbus' mind and that of his royal patrons was on gold and silver and the peaceful people of islands were soon found to be expendable. The Arawak immigrated to the eastern Caribbean archipelago from mainland South America and by Columbus' time were found mostly in the Greater Antilles: Cuba, Dominica, and the Bahamas. They had a complex religious and social structure organized around autonomous villages some of which had as many as 3000 inhabitants. Each village was led by hereditary rulers called cacique (kaseke) who were assisted in religious matters by shamans.

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