Keynes v. Hayek II

Lead: The work of Friedrich August Hayek represented an acute, powerful intellectual rebellion against the growing power of state involvement in the lives of citizens and commerce, but he was no classical liberal.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Adherents to the Austrian approach to economics and its champion, Ludwig von Mises, rose to intellectually challenge the rise of the state, particularly the two great experiments in state dominance over individual life and the marketplace, Communism and Nazism. Von Mises’s most influential acolyte was Nobel Memorial Laureate Friedrich August Hayek. His premier insight in political economy was that as the involvement of the state grew, the reach of individual freedom was circumscribed and the productive, creative contribution of the marketplace to the general prosperity of society as a whole was compromised.

 

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Keynes v. Hayek I

Lead: They represent two distinct approaches to political economy. John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich August von Hayek are perhaps the most influential economists of the modern era.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Lord Bertrand Russell, himself no slouch among the intelligentsia of the 20th century, said John Maynard Keynes’s “intellect was the sharpest and clearest that I have ever known. When I argued with him, I felt that I took my life in my hands, and I seldom emerged without feeling something of a fool.”

 

 

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Churchill and Chamberlain – IV

Lead: With the nation at war with Germany, Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain summoned an old political foe to join the war cabinet.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Despite his attempts to appease Adolf Hitler, Chamberlain had also begun a quiet policy of rearmament. If the Nazis could not be accommodated, Britain might have to fight them. When war thrust itself on the reluctant Prime Minister, he turned for assistance to the man who had for most of the 1930s carried on a lonely crusade for confronting the Nazi threat, Winston Spencer Churchill.

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Churchill and Chamberlain – II

Lead: Faced with the growing power of Germany Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sought accommodation with the Nazis with the policy of appeasement.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In hindsight appeasement usually stimulates thoughts of cowardly surrender to German demands, but at the time it was considered by many to be a reasonable response to legitimate grievances. The policy which was wildly popular actually began under Chamberlain’s predecessor, Stanley Baldwin. Britain stood aside when Italy attacked Ethiopia in August 1935. Baldwin and Chamberlain after him remembered the horror of the First World War and were determined to avoid a repeat at all costs. They were concerned that the British Empire lacked the resources to face down Japan, Italy and Germany at the same time so they attempted to reach agreement with the strongest, the Nazi Regime of Adolf Hitler.

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Churchill and Chamberlain – I

Lead: In the late 1930s, with the world lurching toward another global conflict, the clash of two personalities helped define Britain's response to the Nazi threat.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Few men had more preparation for national leadership than Arthur Neville Chamberlain. He hailed from a family of prominent business oriented politicians. His father, Joseph Chamberlain, was a dominant figure in turn-of-the-century politics. Neville Chamberlain's blue chip resume included success in business, Lord Mayor of Birmingham, Member of Parliament for three decades, Postmaster General, Minister of Health, Chancellor of the Exchequer and then in 1937, Prime Minister. His view of the world never changed much from that of a West Country businessman. He despised communism, feared and loathed war because of the havoc it inflicted upon business and everyday life, and sincerely believed that rational people could sit down and work out their differences. Pity that he did not live in another time, for Chamberlain was ill-equipped to face his great adversary. Adolf Hitler was neither a businessman nor was he rational.

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William Wilberforce and the Abolition of Slavery – IV

Lead: The seemingly impregnable structure of slavery in the British Empire fell in part before the persistent efforts of William Wilberforce.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After undergoing a gradual religious conversion in the 1880s, member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, felt himself compelled to embrace moral causes. He was approached by abolitionists seeking someone to lead the parliamentary campaign to end slavery. He was hesitant at first because of the powerful entrenched interests that supported slavery. Trade in human flesh was big business. Thousands of slaves, hundreds of ships and millions of pounds were involved. Few whites in England or elsewhere considered slavery to be morally wrong. Some believed
slavery was essential for the preservation of society. Others were convinced that slaves deserved to be held in bondage.

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William Wilberforce and the Abolition of Slavery – III

Lead: After years of trying, William Wilberforce and his associates convinced the English Parliament to abolish slavery. Wilberforce said he was motivated by religion.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After a lackluster student career at Cambridge, wealthy, well-connected, 22-year old William Wilberforce was elected to Parliament in 1780. He was an ally of future Prime Minister William Pitt, but he would later acknowledge that his life was typical of most young English gentlemen at the time: affluent, sensual, clever, frivolous, basically adrift with little purpose. That began to change in 1784, when on a trip to the French Riviera he experienced a reawakening of faith. This eventually led to his association with a group of reformers who lived in the village of Clapham, south of London. They were mostly wealthy members of the English upper-class unified by their devotion to evangelical
Anglicanism. Among this group, led by Wilberforce, were merchant banker Henry Thornton, in whose parlor the group often met, attorney Granville Sharp, John Venn, rector of the parish church in Clapham, and educator and author Hannah More. They met for prayer, they met to study the Bible, and they met to plot the political reform of English society, most especially the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. Through the canny use of media outlets, newspapers, lectures, petitions, and direct Parliamentary maneuvering, this group helped change the subject of civil discourse and focus attention on those parts of British society in need of reform.

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William Wilberforce and the Abolition of Slavery – II

Lead: From one perspective England was a religious nation, but things are not always what they seem.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the late 1700s few would have disputed that England was a religious nation. The Anglican Church was the established church, King George III was bound by his oath to defend the Christian faith, and the nation had just witnessed a powerful upturn of religious interest due to the Evangelical revival sparked by the preaching of George Whitefield and John Wesley. Yet, there serious problems in English society that seemed to put a lie to all this religious noise and godly pretense.

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