Robert the Bruce II

Lead: Some wag has said that treason is often a matter of timing. He could not have found a better example of that truism than the conflicted career of Scotland’s liberator, Robert the Bruce.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the 1290s English King Edward I was meddling in Scottish affairs. He forced the Scottish nobles to heel and to accept his candidate for the empty throne, John de Balliol. This was a bit too much for the Scots who rebelled and took up with the French. Edward invaded in 1296 and beat them badly, confiscating the sacred Stone of Scone on which Scottish kings had been crowned. Edward also crushed William Wallace’s popular rebellion at Falkirk in 1298, but the English king, despite prodigious campaigning, could not completely subdue the Scots.







Robert the Bruce I

Lead: During the late medieval period, English imperial ambitions in Scotland provoked a long and bitter time of warfare and savage cross-border conflict. This gave rise to the successful revolt and triumph of Scottish liberator, Robert the Bruce.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Since ancient times, Scotland has often been the suffering unfortunate in a long and troubled relationship with its southern neighbor, England. The Scots are a hearty race, independent and at times fierce in defense of home and hearth, but they also inhabit a wild and rugged country, not particularly rich in natural resources. The population was always smaller than England’s and suffered a climate that is severe during much of the year. The Clan structure of the Highlands and internal disputes generally prevented Scotland from mounting a united front when facing challenges from the south, a circumstance the English were all too happy to exploit.







Gilbert Stuart Part II

Lead: In 1793, after eighteen years abroad, prominent portraitist Gilbert Stuart returned to America. There he painted perhaps the most well-known American portrait.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Gilbert Stuart was considered by his patrons to be witty, charming and entertaining. He was one of the finest portrait artists of his generation, but his penchant for high living had driven him to debt and exile from his lavish lifestyle in London, then in Dublin. He returned to America with the intention of painting George Washington for the General’s European and American admirers. He told a friend, “I expect to make a fortune by Washington.”



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Sun Yat Sen in London

Lead: A failure at revolution, Sun Yat-sen, was given the exposure he desperately required by a Chinese government who ordered him kidnapped in London, a half a world away.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the wake of the crushing defeat Japan handed China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1895. A young revolutionary, born in south eastern China made his first attempt at bring revolution to China.

Sun Yat-sen, the father of the Chinese Revolution, was actually educated in Hawaii. His brother, a prosperous rancher and planter was an ex-patriot. He sent for Sun and paid for his education at missionary schools in Hawaii. It was there he began to be attracted to Christianity and after further schooling in Hong Kong, he was baptized in 1884. Though he studied medicine his real attraction was to politics and in January 1895, when the Japanese were making short thrift of the Chinese government forces, Sun saw his chance for a coup. It was a miserable failure and Sun found himself on the run (good pun). Pursued by Chinese agents across the Pacific and through the United States, the aspiring revolutionary leader was coming to know the deep frustration that failure provides for those who taste its bitterness.


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British General Strike IV

Lead: In the spring of 1926 Britain endured the only General Strike in its history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Labor leaders were frustrated. Led by Walter Citrine of the Trades Union Congress, they wanted to work out a settlement of the looming strike of the mine workers and the possibility of a national sympathy strike, but radical rank and file workers pushed for a confrontation. The conservative government of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin was clearly on the mine owners’ side and had used a nine-month cooling off period to prepare. Labor was not prepared, but when the mine owners locked out their workers and a million of them went on strike, on May 3, 1926, a million and a half transportation, electric, steel and dock workers followed right behind. It was the only time in British history when the vast majority of organized industrial workers gave support to another group of workers for more than one day.


British General Strike III

Lead: Wracked by internal divisions, in spring 1926 the labor movement in Britain called the only General Strike in England's history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the early part of the century, unions representing thousands of British industrial workers were locked in a running debate on the way labor should deal with management. Should unions work within the system or assault it from the outside -- confrontation or cooperation? The leaders of the Trades Union Congress, an umbrella group representing many unions and the members of the British Labor Party were in favor of cooperation. Most were socialist in their outlook, but they advocated gradual reform of society. Among rank and file workers however, there were Communists and radicals who considered their leaders wimpish and wished to remake society along Marxist lines. They looked for confrontation. In May 1926 coal miners gave them their chance.

British General Strike II

Lead: In 1926, the British labor movement called the only general work stoppage in that nation's history.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: As the 1900s drew to a close, industrial workers in Britain had begun to band themselves together into mass trade unions. Shipbuilding laborers, transportation workers, printers, and a host of other trades organized themselves to protect their interests, improve working conditions, and increase wages. Military needs during World War I had gradually increased the wages of factory workers and when peace broke out these workers resisted attempts by government and business leaders to roll back to prewar levels their hard won gains.

British General Strike I

Lead: British Labor could not make up its mind. As during most of the modern era, conservative and radical impulses struggled in the General Strike of 1926.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The industrial revolution first began in Britain of the 1700s. Driven by the marvelous power of steam, textile and iron production, mining, and transportation were transformed and then helped drag a sometimes reluctant society into the modern age. The growing wealth of the lower and middle classes fueled the first mass economy. Well-made and inexpensive consumer goods were available for the first time in history to wide segments of society and to a world hungry for all sorts of high-quality manufactured items. By 1825, the phrase "Britain supplies the world" was no exaggeration.