American Revolution: Taxation Without Representation III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Severe financial burdens resulting from British involvement in the French and Indian War caused the government in London to seek revenues from the thirteen North American colonies, essentially to pay for a peaceful frontier and oceans free for colonial commerce. Surprisingly there were calls by some in Britain proposing colonial representation in Parliament. Adam Smith, Edmund Burke and for a time, Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania’s representative in London, advocated some form of Colonial seats in the commons, but these proposals went nowhere and were not revived until long after the beginning of open hostilities in the late 1770s. Ironically, American radicals ultimately squelched the idea of colonial representation. They were convinced that if there were Americans seated at Westminster, there would be no restraint on Parliamentary enthusiasm for draining colonial pockets. Better to argue that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies, period.

American Revolution: Taxation Without Representation II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: One of the important catalysts of the American Revolution was the French and Indian War and the crushing financial burden the war laid upon Great Britain. By 1763 the national debt was in excess of 120 million pounds, much of it expended to protect the North American colonies and take Canada from the French. The British people were being squeezed dry to pay for the war. The government of King George III thought it reasonable to tax the colonies to pay for their own defense. This was not an unreasonable course of action. Boston, even with a population of only 15,000, was the third largest port in terms of shipping tonnage in the English speaking world, behind Bristol and London. The British Navy made that trade possible and Americans contributed not one pound to naval support.

American Revolution: Taxation Without Representation I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: It is hard to believe, but as late as 1770 most people living in the colonies of North America thought of themselves as loyal subjects of the British Crown. Except for a few radicals, most Americans considered themselves ordinary faithful Englishmen who just happened to live 3000 miles to the west of the Irish Sea. In just six short years a Congress of the colonies had declared independence and was raising an army to banish the rule of King George III forever. The reason: taxes.

Flora McDonald

Lead: One of the heroines of the American Revolution was no patriot at all.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1745, the Highlands of Scotland rose against the English. The rebellion was called the Forty-five and, for a few months, the throne of King George II seemed threatened. Charles Edward Stuart, handsome, magnetic, and charming and rival heir to England’s crown, landed on the coast of Scotland. Charles Stuart marched south with a Highlander army, but his hesitation at the town of Derby, 100 miles from London, marked the high point of the rising. Stuart's retreat turned into a rout and in April 1746, the English destroyed the Highlander army at the Battle of Culloden. Its leader, with a bounty of £30,000 on his head, wandered around the Highlands of Scotland for months. He eventually got away, but only after receiving the aid of Flora McDonald. She disguised him as her maid and helped him escape to the Isle of Skye and from there to Europe.

Read more →

Robert the Bruce II

Lead: Some wag has said that treason is often a matter of timing. He could not have found a better example of that truism than the conflicted career of Scotland’s liberator, Robert the Bruce.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the 1290s English King Edward I was meddling in Scottish affairs. He forced the Scottish nobles to heel and to accept his candidate for the empty throne, John de Balliol. This was a bit too much for the Scots who rebelled and took up with the French. Edward invaded in 1296 and beat them badly, confiscating the sacred Stone of Scone on which Scottish kings had been crowned. Edward also crushed William Wallace’s popular rebellion at Falkirk in 1298, but the English king, despite prodigious campaigning, could not completely subdue the Scots.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert the Bruce I

Lead: During the late medieval period, English imperial ambitions in Scotland provoked a long and bitter time of warfare and savage cross-border conflict. This gave rise to the successful revolt and triumph of Scottish liberator, Robert the Bruce.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Since ancient times, Scotland has often been the suffering unfortunate in a long and troubled relationship with its southern neighbor, England. The Scots are a hearty race, independent and at times fierce in defense of home and hearth, but they also inhabit a wild and rugged country, not particularly rich in natural resources. The population was always smaller than England’s and suffered a climate that is severe during much of the year. The Clan structure of the Highlands and internal disputes generally prevented Scotland from mounting a united front when facing challenges from the south, a circumstance the English were all too happy to exploit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gilbert Stuart Part II

Lead: In 1793, after eighteen years abroad, prominent portraitist Gilbert Stuart returned to America. There he painted perhaps the most well-known American portrait.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Gilbert Stuart was considered by his patrons to be witty, charming and entertaining. He was one of the finest portrait artists of his generation, but his penchant for high living had driven him to debt and exile from his lavish lifestyle in London, then in Dublin. He returned to America with the intention of painting George Washington for the General’s European and American admirers. He told a friend, “I expect to make a fortune by Washington.”

 

 

Read more →

Sun Yat Sen in London

Lead: A failure at revolution, Sun Yat-sen, was given the exposure he desperately required by a Chinese government who ordered him kidnapped in London, a half a world away.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the wake of the crushing defeat Japan handed China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1895. A young revolutionary, born in south eastern China made his first attempt at bring revolution to China.

Sun Yat-sen, the father of the Chinese Revolution, was actually educated in Hawaii. His brother, a prosperous rancher and planter was an ex-patriot. He sent for Sun and paid for his education at missionary schools in Hawaii. It was there he began to be attracted to Christianity and after further schooling in Hong Kong, he was baptized in 1884. Though he studied medicine his real attraction was to politics and in January 1895, when the Japanese were making short thrift of the Chinese government forces, Sun saw his chance for a coup. It was a miserable failure and Sun found himself on the run (good pun). Pursued by Chinese agents across the Pacific and through the United States, the aspiring revolutionary leader was coming to know the deep frustration that failure provides for those who taste its bitterness.

 

Read more →