Boxer Rebellion I

Lead: In 1900 native Chinese resentment of western culture, traders, and missionaries, boiled over in the Boxer Rebellion.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: China is an ancient society whose rich cultural heritage was already well-established when western or European civilization was in its infancy. Therefore, when western merchants sought to open trade with the Asian giant, they encountered deep suspicion of outsiders. The Chinese regarded the westerners with ill-disguised contempt, considering them little better than barbarians.

Japanese Royal Family

Lead: The position of the royal family of Japan has swirled in and between myth and reality until the modern era. Today the Emperor and his kin are respected, even loved, but fulfil a role that is strictly symbolic.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While Buddhism is Japan’s dominant religion, Shinto is the country’s indigenous faith where originate the ancient creation myths that established the foundation of royal governance. In this mythological tradition, Japanese emperors were thought to possess magical powers and direct divine communication. This cultic role made it unseemly for the emperor to be engaged in day-to-day public administration which was handled by advisors and ministers. From the establishment of the a new capital in Kyoto in the late eighth century, a city following a Chinese design, real power was wielded behind the throne in alternating succession by two powerful clans, Fujiwara and Taira.

Nixon Visits China IV

Lead: They were vigorous ideological opponents. Therefore, President Richard Nixon and the Communist leaders of China were in an excellent position to break out of old habits.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The habit of opposition can stand in the way of diplomatic progress. In the early 1970s for hard-nosed political and economic reasons, the old enemies, Communist China and the United States, reached out to one another. The United States was mired in a war in Vietnam it could not win without provoking a wider Asian conflict, Nixon needed a boost to his re-election chances, and the vast Chinese market offered hope for expanded trade to a troubled American economy. Mao Zedong and the other Chinese leaders were just emerging from the isolation of the highly destructive Cultural Revolution, needed a counter-weight in their disputes with the Soviet Union, and wanted U.S. concessions on the Taiwan dispute and the China seat in the United Nations. They also desired access to Western technology.

Nixon Visits China III

Lead: Vigorous anti-communism had built Richard Nixon's career. As President he found he had to do business with his old opponents.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: President Nixon had a favorite saying, "when you have a reputation as an early riser, you can sleep late on occasion." By the time he became President in 1969, few doubted Richard Nixon's anti-communism. He was cold warrior of great repute. Yet, he faced tough problems which required the cooperation of those whom during most of his career he had condemned as enemies.

Nixon Visits China II

Lead: Richard Nixon visited China in 1972. Both he and his hosts had reputations to overcome.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After centuries of rule by often corrupt and inefficient imperial dynasties, China embarked on the road to Revolution in 1912. Inspired by Sun Yat-sen, the nation rejected the empire, but his party, the Guomindang, was not able to establish constitutional government. Corruption and chaos increased, and beginning in the 1920s, the government of Sun's successor, Generalissimo Jiang Kai-shek, was almost constantly involved in a civil war against the Communists led by Mao Zedong. After a truce during which both factions fought the invading Japanese in the 1930s and 1940s, the civil war resumed. The Communists won in 1949 but spent the better part of two decades consolidating their hold on China. During that time relations with the United States remained icy due to tensions over the fate of Taiwan, open conflict in Korea and Vietnam, and clear ideological differences.

Nixon Visits China I

Lead: On February 21, 1972, U.S. President Richard Milhouse Nixon arrived in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. For the Chinese and for Nixon it was a meeting born of necessity.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the middle of the twentieth century, relations between China and the United States were limited. Up to 1920, the United States was at best a regional power and played a role in East Asia secondary to Britain, France, and even Russia. This had begun around 1900. The United States acquired the Philippines and therefore became a major player in Asian affairs, and it emerged from the First World War as a truly global military and economic power.

Malaysia II

Lead: Emerging from a post-colonial crisis in the 1960s, Malaysia is on track by the mid-21st century to be one of the world’s great economies.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After World War II, powerful Malaysian nationalist forces began pressing Britain to grant the archipelago its independence. Britain began the process, but beginning in 1948 mostly Chinese rebels led by the Malayan Communist Party conducted a bloody insurrection known as the Malayan Emergency. Commonwealth troops alongside Malayan nationals put down the rebellion, but it took a dozen years. With the end of the uprising Britain’s rule was over and a federated state was created which included Peninsula Malaysia, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. Singapore departed in 1965 and the remaining government is a federal constitutionally elected monarchy made up of thirteen states and three federal territories. The capital and largest city is Kuala Lumpur though much of the federal administrative apparatus is located 25 kilometers south in the planned city of Putrajaya.

Malaysia I

Lead: Assembled from various components of the British Empire, the nation of Malaysia has made great strides since achieving independence.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Malaysia occupies the severe southeastern point of the Eurasian continent and lies athwart some of the richest, most traveled shipping lanes in the world. The indigenous Malay population was supplemented through commercial connections with Indian and Chinese traders sometime around the first century CE. The result is that just over 20% of the population of 30,000,000 is of ethnic Chinese descent. Hinduism and Buddhism were adopted by the native population until the arrival of Islam in the 1300s and today, with Muslims constituting around 60% of the population, Islam is the official faith of Malaysia, though freedom of religion is a constitutionally protected right.