America’s Revolution: French and Indian War IV

 

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: One of the primary catalysts of the American Revolution was the French and Indian War. The London government of the Duke of Newcastle sent General Edward Braddock to America to begin cleaning the French out of the Ohio Valley. Even before Braddock left England, word reached Paris, and the French dispatched troops to counteract the British thrust. Attempts by British naval units to interdict the French were measures that led to an official declaration of war between the antagonists in 1755. When Braddock arrived in North America he conferred with colonial governors and they planned a four-pronged attack on the French in the west. Nearly all of these efforts failed. In fact, nearly everything the British tried from 1755 to 1757 in America came to grief. Only the capture of Fort Beauséjour on the border between French Acadia and British Nova Scotia was an unrestrained success.

America’s Revolution: The French and Indian War III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Unable by negotiation to convince the French to withdraw from the Ohio Valley or to dislodge them by direct confrontation in a military expedition led by George Washington in 1754, the British government, led by the Duke of Newcastle, decided to ramp up its engagement and take the valley by force. It dispatched a large expedition under Major General Edward Braddock to confront the French and seize Fort Duquesne at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This action provoked the beginning in 1755 of the French and Indian War, the North American theater of a much wider conflict, the Seven Years’ War, history’s first truly world war.

America’s Revolution: French and Indian War II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: The French and Indian War was the North American theater of a much larger international conflict known to European historians as the Seven Years’ War. The land and naval forces of Great Britain and its allies secured a major victory over France and its allies in the years between 1755 and 1763. It was an enormously expensive enterprise and by prevailing in it Britain laid the foundation for its second empire while at the same time it sowed the seeds of destruction for its first empire.

America’s Revolution: French and Indian War I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It is remarkable but true. The vast majority of the millions of residents of the 13 North American colonies of Great Britain in 1770 considered themselves loyal subjects of King George III. Except for a few radicals, most Americans saw themselves as ordinary faithful Englishmen who just happened to live 3000 miles west of the Irish Sea. In just six years, a Congress of the Colonies had declared independence and had fielded an army to defend that declaration with the intent to banish the rule of King George forever. In that period a significant portion of that population was supporting an unprecedented violent revolution that crafted a successful grand strategy that would create the largest republic in human history to that point.

American Revolution: Invasion of Canada III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: On the last day of 1775 an outnumbered force of American troops attempted to capture the City of Quebec and solidify Yankee control of Canada. Led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery, about 1000 troops attacked from two directions. Their object was Lower Town at the borders of which the British had erected two rough barricades. The main part of the city was surrounded by a high wall and cliffs such as Diamond Point which soared high above the St. Lawrence River.

American Revolution: Invasion of Canada II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: For many Americans the possibility of making Canada an ally in the Revolution seemed a live one. In June 1775 Congress ordered an invasion in two separate thrusts. Benedict Arnold led 1000 men in an heroic winter crossing of the Maine wilderness. The men endured terrible privation and the expedition substantial losses due to the cold and wet weather, the harrowing cross-country trek and the departure of a third of Arnold’s command. They arrived at the gates of Quebec in early December.

American Revolution: Organizing the Continental Army III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: As he attempted to shape the Continental Army into a fighting force capable of engaging the British Army that was locked up in Boston during summer 1775, George Washington faced a series of vexing problems. His men were ill-equipped and poorly trained, but as citizen soldiers on temporary duty in this the first great crisis of the Revolution, they were resistant to the order which characterized a regular army. Troops and their officers talked to British soldiers they faced across lines separating the two armies, many slept away from their units, often they abandoned their duty before being relieved, latrines were allowed to overflow, the camps were messy, food served the men was often rancid and noxious, and soldiers were given furlough freely which meant that units were almost always undermanned.

American Revolution: Organizing the Continental Army II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: In July, 1775 George Washington arrived in Cambridge, Massachusetts to take over command of the Continental Army. He was concerned that the fighting ability and physical condition of his troops would prove inadequate against the British Army, representing arguably the world’s most powerful military force. He revered the way in which this enemy, indeed all European armies were organized and employed, but his experience with the Virginia militia had convinced him that he would never have such an army and his pragmatism led him to conclude that he would have to fight with the army bequeathed him. He could improve their discipline and supply, but could not turn them into the ranks of human machines British officers had at their disposal.