Kwame Nkrumah II

Lead: After a 12-year absence for study and training in the United States and Europe, in 1947 Kwame Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast. It was a land demanding independence.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until 1925, the African Gold Coast had been a British possession ruled by a Governor sent by London and a legislative council which contained only a token few black African representatives. As time century matured more Africans joined the council until 1946 when they held a majority of the seats. Despite this increased influence, many intellectuals and professionals remained at fundamental odds with the colonial system. The English language and Western culture were still pervasive and Britain exercised colonial domination.

 

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Kwame Nkrumah I

In 1909 Kwame Nkrumah, the founder and leader of modern Ghana, was born in the Gold Coast, the British Colony on the western coast of Africa.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Kwame Nkrumah demonstrated his ability to communicate and organize at an early age. After completing just elementary school, he became a teacher just outside of the city of Nroful. His intelligence and skills were quickly recognized, and he earned a fellowship at the prestigious Prince of Wales College. It was here that he met his mentor, Dr. Kwegyir Aggrey, the school’s assistant vice-president and first African staff member. Aggrey was a vigorous opponent of segregated society, which only fueled Nkrumah’s nationalism. He became convinced that only independence would make possible equal treatment for black Africans.

 

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Howard Carter and the Tomb of Tutankhamen IV

Lead: Five years of failure and disappointment flashed away as Howard Carter looked through opening he had made. The young King came alive.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The rule of Pharaoh Tutankhamen was a short one. He lived about 1350 years before Christ and died at seventeen, his rule brief, obscure and dominated by powerful advisors. He was buried and over the years the location of his small tomb was forgotten. Most Egyptologists had assumed the grave site to have been discovered but Carter and his partner George Lord Herbert Carnarvon thought otherwise and spent the five years before 1922 searching the Valley of the Kings near ancient Thebes for the young King's illusive tomb. After nearly giving up, on November 4th, workmen discovered a step cut into the rock of the Valley floor. Carter cabled his partner to come from England and Lord George arrived November 23rd. By that time a stairway and door were uncovered and Carter had found the name of Tutankhamen cut into the wall at several places. Two days later the corridor leading into the tomb had been cleared and he had reached a second door. At 4:00 PM Carter made a small hole in the door and looked in. Carnarvon recalled the scene. "Mr. Carter, holding a candle before him, put in his head." He did not say anything for two or three minutes, but kept me in rather painful suspense. I thought I had been disappointed again, and I said, "Can you see anything?" "Yes, yes," he replied. "It is wonderful."

 

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Howard Carter and the Tomb of Tutankhamen III

Lead: Howard Carter believed it was there and would not give up.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The rule of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamen was a short one. He lived about 1350 years before Christ and died at seventeen, his rule brief, obscure and dominated by powerful advisors. He was buried and over the years the location was forgotten. Ironically, this anonymity probably saved his tomb from plundering by graverobbers. Wealthy Egyptians would fill their graves with rich articles supposedly for use in the afterlife. Thieves and even some of the priests who buried them would take note of the tomb's location, wait a day or so, break in and clean it out.

 

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Howard Carter and the Tomb of Tutankhamen II

Lead: In 1922 the discovery of the hidden tomb of a teenager electrified the world.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Ancient Egyptians marked their history by the dynasties of their Pharaohs. Modern historians for simplicity have divided this saga into Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms interspersed with occasional periods of political and social chaos. The great pyramids at Giza were built in the Old Kingdom, political consolidation came during the Middle and Egypt reached out to establish an Empire in the New Kingdom south into Africa and north to Palestine and Syria. During this last period, perhaps because of the exposure to other cultures afforded by military expansion, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaton who ruled Egypt about 1350 years before Christ developed a new religion. He and his wife Nefertiti rejected the multiple Egyptian gods and enshrined a new belief based on a single deity, the sun-god, Aton. To make a clear break with the past Akhenaton moved the government to a newly constructed capital north along the Nile from the ancient city of Thebes and called it El-Amarna.

 

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Howard Carter and the Tomb of Tutankhamen I

Lead: Howard Carter put his head through the small opening. What he saw changed his life.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Howard Carter was born in Norfolk, England in the high Victorian era of British Colonial Confidence. The British Navy still ruled the oceans of the world, and despite occasional setbacks such as the Sepoy Mutiny in India and the Boer War, until the dawn of the twentieth century the British Empire stretched proud and virtually unchallenged to the far corners of the globe.

 

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Gandhi in South Africa II

Lead: Mahatma Gandhi first built his reputation as it led the movement to secure rights for Indian workers in sugar plantations in early twentieth century South Africa.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The cash crop of Natal province on the eastern coast of South Africa was sugar cane. Native Africans resisted working on the plantations and therefore thousands of emigrant workers were brought from India. Some went home after their contract expired, others stayed. In the 1880s torn between their need for Indian labor and fear of the growth of the Indian population, white South Africans of both Dutch and English heritage began to restrict Indian rights, this despite the stated British policy which accorded legal equality to all subjects of the Empire regardless of race or place of origin.

 

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Gandhi in South Africa I

Lead: In his campaign for Indian freedom in the 1940s, Mahatma Gandhi used skills and tactics he sharpened in a fight for justice in turn of the twentieth century South Africa.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Most people have an image of Gandhi as a shriveled figure dressed in traditional clothes whose use of non-violence helped drive the British from the Indian sub-continent. Few remember that he spent over twenty years as a lawyer in South Africa deeply involved in alleviating abuses direct toward the Indian emigrant community.

 

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