History of Zaire II

Lead: Chaos greeted the establishment of the new Congo Republic in the early 1960s. How the nation would emerge depended on the struggle between the followers of Joseph Kasavubu and Patrice Lumumba.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Premier Patrice Lumumba was an African nationalist and throughout his career focused on the unity of the Congo rather than on autonomy for its regional areas. His great rival was President Joseph Kasavubu who valued increasing the power of local identities and regional jurisdictions as opposed to national priorities. In a confused burst of political chaos in the closing days of June 1960. Lumumba was elected premier and Kasavubu President. They were locked in an uneasy embrace as the Congo began to disintegrate.

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History of Zaire I

Lead: Zaire was carved from the heart of Africa and began its modern existence as a private reserve of a group of European investors led by King Leopold II of Belgium.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The modern state of Zaire roughly covers the region drained by the Congo River, one of the world’s longest, and after the Amazon, discharges the largest amount of fresh water into the ocean. Indigenous peoples are mostly Bantu speakers but there are still more than 200 languages and dialects spoken in Zaire. European settlement followed the famous journey of H.M. Stanley who crossed the region in search of the elusive missionary, David Livingstone. King Leopold II of Belgium formed an investor group with the intention of exploiting the riches of the area and hired Stanley to establish river outposts and negotiate trading agreements with local leaders in the basin.

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The Great Sphinx of Giza

Lead: In recent decades the Great Sphinx of Gaza has shown signs of advanced deterioration. It may actually be older than was once thought.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Sphinx has fired the imagination of poets, scholars, and tourists for generations. Recently stones have begun falling off this massive statue, masonry veneer from the left hind paw in 1981, and a huge piece of bedrock from the right shoulder in 1988. This has led to speculation that the giant lion-shaped figure is actually much older than had been estimated. Heretofore, archeologists have dated the Sphinx as originating in the Old Kingdom about 2500 years B.C.E. The recent decay has led some scholars to assert that the monument is more like 5000 to 7000 years B.C.E. However this dispute is resolved, it has led to heightened interest in the origins of the statue and to what use it was put in the cultic life of the ancient Egyptian religion. The Sphinx sits within a cluster of burial monuments and temples near Giza just south of the Nile Delta. The three giant pyramids of Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure dominate the skyline. Each of the giant structures had a long causeway or narrow ceremonial boulevard that ran from a temple beside the pyramid down to another temple close to the River itself. This last was called the Valley Temple and served as an entrance to each pyramid complex.

Gordon of Khartoum

Lead: Acting as a magnet, the Chinese Gordon drew the British Empire ever southward up the Nile into the Sudan.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: One of the most controversial and interesting characters of Victorian England was Charles G. Gordon, nicknamed of "Chinese Gordon" for his service in China in the 1870s. Gordon was the ideal Victorian leader, combining military skill with a deep devotion to the Christian faith and to English political institutions. During his service as governor general of the Sudan in eastern Africa Gordon helped bring an end to the slave trade.

In 1884, an Egyptian army led by British General William Hicks was wiped out by the troops of Mohammed Ahmad, an Islamic prophet who claimed to be Mahdi, the expected spokesman and successor to Mohammed.

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1968: Biafran Terror Famine II

Introduction: A Moment in Time, 1968: A special series on the 40th anniversary of a year of upheaval, in a world seemingly out of control.

 Content: By the middle of 1968, the Nigerian civil war had created a true international humanitarian crisis. The oil-rich eastern region of Biafra was surrounded by government troops, cut off and starving. “Kwashiorkor,” an Igbo tribal word for protein deficiency, had reduced the Biafrans to eating rats, lizards, dogs and ants for protein. That year, between 1,500 and 40,000 Biafrans starved to death each week. When food was available it was astronomically expensive. Still, the Nigerian government would not relent and the rest of the world looked the other way during most of 1968.

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1968: Biafran Terror Famine I

Introduction: A Moment in Time, 1968: A special series on the 40th anniversary of a year of upheaval, in a world seemingly out of control.

Content: Almost from the time of Nigerian independence in 1960, Biafra, an oil rich region in the eastern part of that West African nation, began agitating for its own independence. By 1968 the region was engulfed in a full-blown civil war. That was not the way it was supposed to be. In the years immediately following freedom from Great Britain, Nigeria seemed to be on the verge of accomplishing something rare on the African continent. It appeared to be shaping itself into an ethnically diverse democracy. Soon, however, this idyllic dream began to fall apart with conflicts arising between regions and the 250 ethnic groups in the country.

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David Livingstone II

Lead: On October 23, 1871, two men greeted each other on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in Africa. It was during this brief encounter there was uttered one of history’s most famous phrases. “Dr. Livingston, I presume?”

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: In 1866, missionary David Livingston embarked from there on what would be his last journey to Africa. His goal—to find the source of the Nile River. Livingston began with a party of 30 porters, several Indian soldiers, freed slaves and local recruits. But most of party dropped out—leaving only Livingston and a handful to continue.

 

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David Livingstone I

Lead: He has been described as Abraham Lincoln, Mother Teresa and Neil Armstrong all rolled into one. But the world knew him as Dr. Livingston.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: David Livingston grew up in a devout Scottish household. His father, a strict Calvinist, taught his son the same discipline. In 1834, British churches were seeking missionaries to travel to China. Livingston volunteered, but was unable to go because of the first Opium War, during which hostilities in China prevented expanded missionary activity.

 

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