Lead:  The occupation of Egypt by the French ending in 1801 disrupted the country's traditional political and economic structures. Sent as a part of the Ottoman Empire's force to throw the French out, Muhammad Ali, through political maneuvering, rose to be the governor. He is considered by many to be the Founder of Modern Egypt.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: By ruthlessly eliminating the Mamluks, the traditional rulers of Egypt, and neutralizing all other challenges to his authority, Muhammad slowly began to make major changes in society. To firm up his position he first created, with the help of European advisors, the first modern army and navy in the Near East. He created a professional civil service and centralized the tax system, but his major reforms were in agricultural production.