Massive Resistance II

Lead: The reaction of the Virginia political establishment to the 1954 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregated schools was called massive resistance. The plan was the inspiration of the Byrd Machine.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote from the Birmingham jail in 1963 that “privileged groups rarely give up their privileges voluntarily.” Perhaps nowhere has that best been demonstrated than Virginia in the 1950s. The news that the U.S. Supreme Court had unanimously declared segregated schools to be inherently unequal, therefore unconstitutional, was greeted throughout the white South with a combination of unbelief, fear, and defiance. To achieve unanimity on the Court, Chief Justice Earl Warren dealt with the constitutional question first and delayed the process of implementation. The South had time to comply or defy. Except for North Carolina, which devised a system of token and isolated desegregation, for the most part the South chose defiance. As it did in 1861, with equally lamentable results, Virginia led the way.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download

Massive Resistance I

Lead: After the Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that separate black schools were unconstitutional, Virginia’s white leadership resisted desegregation using legislation and theory, a campaign known as massive resistance.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From its founding by Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Democratic-Republican Party, now known as the Democrat Party, was an alliance of Northern urban, usually immigrant groups, and Southern agricultural interests. It dominated American politics from 1800 until 1856. The growing sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War split the party and, because they were seen as champions of the Union, political dominance shifted to the Republicans. Outside Northern cities, about the only place Democrats held significant power was in the South where by 1900 racist white conservatives had begun to erect the discriminatory edifice of laws suppressing black civil rights that came to be known as Jim Crow.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download

The Man Pursued by War (McLean) II

Lead: In 1861 the first major battle in Virginia took place in the front yard of Wilmer McLean along Bull Run Creek. Seeking to protect his family from the fighting he moved them to south central Virginia.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It was not uncommon for civilians to remove themselves from areas of intense fighting. Up to this point war was, for the most part, left to soldiers. As the war intensified Federal generals such as Sherman in Georgia and Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley made destruction of civilian property a matter of military policy. Sherman, in particular, boasted that he had destroyed $100,000,000 in property during his dash from Atlanta to Savannah in the fall of 1864.

 

Read more →

The Man Pursued by War (McLean) I

Lead: In 1850 Wilmer McLean, a prominent merchant of Alexandria, Virginia married the widow Virginia Beverley Mason. They lived at her plantation, Yorkshire, in Fairfax County, Virginia.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: McLean was a son of one of the most prominent commercial families of Alexandria. His marriage to Virginia Mason, among Virginia's wealthiest women, brought him extensive responsibilities as manager of the family's holdings. Yorkshire was a 1200 acre tract close by the small creek known as Bull Run just outside of the village of Manassas Junction.

In the spring of 1861, the McLeans and their neighbors were well aware of the approach of war. The Confederate army stationed troops at Manassas to protect the area as it was a vital rail junction linking the principle north-south line with one that rest west into the Shenandoah Valley. This made the region a military target and on June 1st, General Pierre G.T. Beauregard arrived to take charge since in was becoming evident that Federal forces were beginning to move into the area with an eye toward taking the junction.

 

Read more →

Amelia Earhart II

Lead: Her name was famous around the world and not just for her epic flying accomplishments. She was a consummate believer that women had an equal place with men, and then over the Pacific in 1937 Amelia Earhart was lost.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Though she grew up in a more conventional Victorian era, Earhart was in spirit a child of the twentieth century. A strong promoter of women’s rights, from childhood she had participated in those arenas usually reserved for boys and then men. She believed that notions of retiring femininity were outdated and everything she did paved the way for women to follow: athletically, professionally, and personally. Her position on the faculty of Purdue University, advising on aeronautics and women’s career opportunities, allowed her to influence a new generation of women leaders.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download [105.41 KB]

Amelia Earhart I

Lead: Among pioneer aviators, only Charles Lindbergh exceeded the fame and accomplishments of Amelia Earhart. She was a model and inspiration for millions, including millions of women.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Born in Victorian-era Kansas in 1897 of a prosperous family, Earhart early on demonstrated an independent spirit, an inclination toward adventure, and robust imagination. She refused to be trapped in the usual roles reserved for girls and then later women, playing a variety of sports and showing a remarkable curiosity about all things mechanical. Yet, Earhart read voraciously and had little difficulty succeeding in the affairs of the mind.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download [103.31 KB]

Barbarossa II

Lead: By December 1940 Adolf Hitler had decided to attack Soviet Russia late the following spring. In March he compounded that blunder with a catastrophic error born of pure rage.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Before Hitler could attack Russia he had to clean up the deteriorating situation in the Balkans. He rescued the Italian Army which was being beaten up by Greeks, he dragooned the Bulgarians into the Tripartite Alliance with Germany and Italy, and he thought he had browbeaten the Yugoslav government into same fate, but the Yugoslavs were made of sterner stuff. A popular uprising in March overthrew the Yugoslav regime and let it be known that that little country would not be a puppet of Berlin. Hitler absolutely hit the ceiling, launching into a wild rage, and ordered his generals to level Belgrade with bombing and crush the Yugoslavs.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download

Barbarossa I

Lead: In June 1941 Adolf Hitler launched what would become his greatest blunder. Like Napoleon before him, he attacked Russia and endured the same crushing, disastrous defeat.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The thieves had already begun to fall out. Hitler and Stalin were quite willing to carve up defenseless Poland in 1939, but with the collapse of France in the West, Hitler began cast his eyes to the East seeking Lebensraum, literally “living space,” a vital part of Nazi doctrine asserting that Germany had as its right possession of the land of those considered racially impure, mostly in the East. This brought Russia and Germany, the two great European military, political, and social superpowers, into fatal conflict.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download