Lead: For 400 years service men and women have fought to carve out and defend freedom and the civilization we know as America. This series on A Moment in Time is presented by the people of General Dynamics and is devoted to the memory of those warriors, whose sacrifice gave, in the words of Lincoln at Gettysburg, the last full measure.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Though there had been attempts to create an underwater craft since as early as the 1500s, the modern submarine did not take shape until the late 19th century and then was designed primarily for military purposes. The design of a submarine is far more complex than a surface vessel. In balance, maneuver, life support and propulsion, a submarine operates in a different environment requiring different construction principles. Attempts to build underwater craft span the modern period. As early as 1578, William Borne, an English writer on naval matters, proposed an enclosed wooden vessel, rowed underwater. His idea was brought to reality by Dutch inventor, Cornelius van Drebel, in service to King James I of England. His craft operated 12 feet below the surface of the Thames River, was covered with greased leather and propelled by oars extending through tightly bound leather flaps.

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