Joan of Arc I

Lead: In 1420 Joan a young French peasant girl, in the throes of religious ecstasy, altered the affairs of great nations at the cost of her own life.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Joan was born in the village of Domremy, France, in 1412. She lived in final stages of the so-called Hundred Years’ War, a series of sporadic conflicts fought on French soil between England and France from 1337 to 1453. Beginning with the Norman Invasion in 1066, the monarchs of England were French, often more interested in pursuing their destinies and expanding their territory on the continent than in England itself. Through marriage, the royal houses of the two countries had become linked and it was inevitable that at one point an English King would be able to make a convincing claim to the throne of France. In the 1330s it happened. With the death of French King Charles IV in 1328, the Capetian dynasty came to an end. Sixteen-year-old King Edward III of England had a strong claim to France through his mother, the dead French king’s sister. By artful manipulation French nobles blocked Edward’s claim and installed in his place a royal nephew, Philip of Valois. Edward acquiesced but in 1337 Philip confiscated the rich Duchy of Acquitaine, Edward’s vast holdings in southwestern France

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Court Martial of Billy Mitchell I

Lead: Billy Mitchell’s experience as Army air combat commander during World War I showed him that future success in warfare depended on air power. His problem was that he just couldn’t keep quiet about it.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Before the war Mitchell had a limited view of the airplane’s potential. He was in the Signal Corps and believed flying machines were primarily useful only for reconnaissance, flying behind and over the battlefield, spotting artillery, tracking enemy maneuvers, and aiding in fast communication and travel. As the months in Europe passed, his perspective began to change. He started to fly battle missions beside his pilots and eventually rose to be leader of the Army’s air arm. Under actual combat conditions additional powerful possibilities for the airplane began to emerge. Tactically, warplanes could support troops fighting on the ground and strategically, planes could help destroy enemy installations behind the lines.

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Construction of the Panama Canal III

Lead: In 1907, President Teddy Roosevelt had to find a replacement for John Frank Stevens. He assigned the completion of the Panama Canal to George Goethals,

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts,

Content: French engineers had attempted the construction of the Panama Canal in the 1870s. As Colonel George Goethals of the Army Corps of Engineers took over, digging proceeded at an amazing pace with workers removing more dirt each day than the French did in an entire month.

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Nat Turner Slave Rebellion I

Lead: In August 1831 the southside Virginia county of Southhampton was convulsed by the deadliest slave rebellion in North American history. One of roots of the rebellion was southern white ambivalence about slavery.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Despite the growing economic dependence upon slave labor in the American south after the Revolution, there was powerful ambivalence among many Southerners about the institution of slavery. It mocked the philosophical foundation of the republic itself, violating the principles animating the Declaration of Independence. Many religious groups were increasingly vocal about the immorality of slavery. Quakers, anti-slavery Baptists, and before 1800, Methodists vigorously denounced the practice and encouraged slave owners to manumit their slaves. In the north, slavery was gradually eliminated by custom, sentiment and legal prohibition, so that the south became increasingly isolated in the national debate.

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Dorothy Dix II

Lead: A chance encounter in the East Cambridge Jail in 1841 gave Dorothea Dix a cause to pursue, a focus for her intellect and considerable energy, and a passion which would consume her for the rest of her life.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Dorothea Dix, daughter of an alcoholic itinerant minister, but granddaughter of a prominent and wealthy Boston physician, in her early years was a devout Christian. She believed her affluent, cultured upbringing and her faith placed powerful requirements on her life. She felt compelled into a life of service to those in society less fortunate, less wealthy, less healthy, less indulged than she.

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Joan of Arc III

Lead: In 1430, Joan of Arc, a young peasant girl inspiring the French to victory over the English in the later stages of the Hundred Years War, was tried and executed as a witch.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After leading the French to several victories over the English and provoking a firestorm of French patriotism, Joan began a drive to kick England’s army out of France for good. Without authorization she led an army to relieve Compiegne, a small town near Paris. Soldiers of the Duke of Burgundy, the French ally of the English, won the day, captured Joan, and she was imprisoned. Distraught, the girl attempted a near suicidal jump from the top of the prison tower but she landed in the moat, unconscious but unhurt. Six months later Joan was sold to the English, who were anxious to discredit her in the eyes of her countrymen. They decided to have her tried by the Inquisition on religious charges.

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Hugh O’Neill

Lead: For nearly one thousand years beginning in the the medieval period, England’s campaign to extend its control over Ireland, brought conflict, suffering and division to that island.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: During the middle ages, ambitious English Kings attempted to extend royal power over Ireland. It was not an easy task. The Irish did not anxiously surrender their homeland to the interloper. They considered their civilization to be older, richer, more pious and more learned than that of the upstart Anglo-Norman invaders, but English arms were stronger and could prevail in most circumstances.

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Hugh O’Neill II

Lead: Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, balanced his commitments to friendship, ambition, clan and Ireland as England intensified its power over the Emerald Isle during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Among the numerous Gaelic clans of 16th century Ireland, the O’Donnells, O’Reillys, McGuires, Magennises, O’Brians, O’Kellys, MacCarthys and so on, none could claim more esteem and prominence than the O’Neills. The Great O’Neill, the allied families’ huge land holding covered a vast portion of modern Ulster’s former County Tyrone. Beginning in 1534, the English crown began a systematic extension of royal authority out from Pale, the area immediately adjacent to Dublin, across the entire island. This, the so-called Tudor conquest, ramped up the passion of centuries-old English imperial designs on the Emerald Isle and began decades of ever increasing conflict.

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