Gilbert Tennent III

Lead: Gilbert Tennent was a vigorous advocate of the spiritual renewal in the colonies during the 1730s known as the Great Awakening. An early harsh critic of the skeptics of reform, he ended his ministry as a peacemaker.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Despairing of what he considered spiritual apathy in his New Brunswick, New Jersey Presbyterian congregation, around 1726 Tennent, a graduate of Yale and his father’s frontier seminary, the Log College, fell under the influence of a local pietistic Dutch Reformed pastor, Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen. The young pastor came to believe that a spiritual life emerged from three steps: conviction of sin, rebirth or conversion, and a life of personal piety. By the mid-1730s Tennent was agitating for visible evidence of this conversion in candidates for the ministry. A bitter split was developing between traditionalists or Old Lights and those like Tennent, New Lights. The latter were champions of the emerging storm of revival, that, whipped along by Anglican itinerant preacher, George Whitefield, was becoming the First Great Awakening.

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Gilbert Tennent I

Lead: Gilbert Tennent was one of the leaders of the Protestant religious movement the Great Awakening. His experience revealed one of the main fault lines in American religion.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the earliest years of the settlement of North America, Protestantism had sorted itself into three major groupings. Anglicans, reflecting the dominant privilege of the Church of England, constituted the majority of the ruling class in the southern tidewater region and in the urban areas of the middle colonies.

Calvinists with a puritan heritage, congregational government and inclined toward personal, pietistic religion held sway in New England. Beginning in the 1680s, Presbyterians from Scotland and Northern Ireland led by Francis Makemie began to flood into the middle colonies, moving gradually into the interior and down the spine of the Appalachians into the southern back country. Methodists and Baptists did not arrive on the scene in any significant numbers until the era of the American Revolution. Pentecostalism was not a factor until the 20th century.

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Hugh O’Neill III

Lead: Raised in English homes after the death of his father in the 1550s, Hugh O’Neill, one of the claimants to the huge O’Neill estates in Northern Ireland, balanced affection, ambition and loyalty during the Tudor conquest.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: His grandfather, Conn O’Neill, was the last undisputed Great O’Neill, the ancient title carrying with it clan leadership and vast estates in Ulster. He achieved his position with the connivance of English crown authorities, but then mistakenly conferred his inheritance on an adopted son, Matthew Kelly, stirring up a harsh inner-clan dispute with Conn’s eldest son Shane O’Neill. As a result, Conn ended his life in bitter exile. Matthew’s orphan, Hugh O’Neill, was raised in English homes in the Pale and London, the most important of which was that of Sir Henry Sydney, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The English obviously saw in Hugh O’Neill a native Irishman who could advance their cause in Ireland. After 1587, with English sponsorship, he became the 2nd Earl of Tyrone and gradually defeated his clan rivals, particularly Turlough Luineach (lin ek) O’Neill.

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Gilbert Tennent II

Lead: Divisions over personal religion led to a serious split in American Protestantism during the Great Awakening of the 1700s. One of the leaders of the new side or new lights was Gilbert Tennent.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Tennent family migrated to Philadelphia from Northern Ireland in 1718. Born into a Scottish Presbyterian family, William Tennent had become a minister in the Anglican Church of Ireland, but was increasingly dissatisfied. Beginning in 1618 settlers had been forcibly moved by the English from Scotland into Ulster to help increase the number of Protestants on the island. Once there they longed for their traditional Presbyterianism and resisted attempts to force feed them the Anglicanism of the established church. Many began to meet secretly for field communions or sacramental seasons, annual events with preaching and worship in Scottish tradition. Tennent, caught up in this dissenting movement, eventually renounced his ordination and moved to America.

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America’s First Century: The Mother Country, 1607 III

Lead: Changing economic conditions and social challenges laid the foundation for England’s colonial enterprise. Seeking new markets and new fortunes adventurers found their way to places like Virginia.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Since deep into the medieval period, the basis for England’s national wealth had been wool. Over the centuries, tons of raw wool had been harvested on English hillsides and shipped to the Continent where it was fashioned into cloth, but by 1600 the wool trade was on the wane. Markets had been disrupted by religious and economic conflict in Europe and there had developed a glut of wool in France and Holland the traditional buyers of England’s raw goods. The Crown, which derived much of its income from import and export taxes on foreign trade, encouraged merchants and traders to find new markets for English wool.

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America’s First Century: The Mother Country, 1607 I

Lead: Nearly four centuries have passed since a fledgling English outpost barely clung to life on the rim of the vast Chesapeake Bay. Yet, the survival of Jamestown reflected a new place for England in the world.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Europeans were not the first humans to inhabit North America, nor were the English the first Europeans to settle the New World. Norsemen, Basque fishermen, the colonial Spanish and Portuguese, a few lost Englishmen, and, of course, of most ancient vintage, Native Americans had visited, hunted, fished, mined, pillaged, cultivated, or settled North, Central and South America for centuries. Long before the three little ships of Christopher Newport’s armada dropped their human cargo on the misty peninsula in the Powatan estuary in 1607, the so-called Western Isles supported, in some places, quite brilliant human civilization.

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1968: Democratic National Convention I

 

Introduction: A Moment in Time, 1968: A special series on the 40th anniversary of a year of upheaval, in a world seemingly out of control

Content: As the hot summer of 1968 ground to a close, the Democrats prepared to descend on Chicago for their quadrennial gathering. The year had taken its toll. Assassination, riot, an unpopular war and a divided leadership left the Democrats in disarray. Richard Nixon was in the wings ready to take advantage of the Party’s malaise with his Republican arms flung wide in welcome to southerners disdainful of black demands, Americans sick of anti-war hippies, and a segment of society increasingly receptive to his hard-line message of law and order.

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The Battle of Salamis Part I

Lead: During the 5th century BCE the outcome of the Greco-Persian Wars shifted international power from the Persian Empire to the Greeks. The Battle of Salamis is often regarded as the turning point.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Greco-Persian Wars were a series of military conflicts between several Greek city-states and the Persian Empire lasting for two decades from 499 to 479 BCE. The naval Battle of Salamis fought in 480 was documented by the Greek historian, Herodotus and was considered by him to be decisive in determining the outcome

 

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