Baruch Spinoza

Lead: One of the most creative thinkers of the seventeenth century was an Amsterdam lens maker, Baruch Spinoza born on November 24, 1632.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Spinoza's father and grandfather were Portuguese. The regime of the Spanish Inquisition forced them to convert to Christianity even though privately they retained their Jewish faith. The Union of Utrecht in 1579 decreed that in Holland there would be religious freedom and the Spinoza clan migrated to Amsterdam, becoming there prosperous merchants and respected members of the Jewish community.

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The Sexual Politics of Elizabeth I – III

Lead: Elizabeth I, Queen of England, used her sexuality for the good of the nation.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content:  In one of her first speeches to Parliament Elizabeth gave a strong signal as to how she viewed her role as a monarch and as a woman. She said, "I have already joined myself to a husband, namely the Kingdom of England." From that point on, the Queen's use of her sexuality, was subtle and manipulative, but also ultimately very useful in helping bring stability and prosperity to England.

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The Sexual Politics of Elizabeth I – II

Lead:  As Elizabeth Tudor came to the English throne in 1559 she faced the normal prejudice against women in authority but also had to battle the bloody reputation of her sister Mary.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: King Henry VIII's son, Edward died in 1553 after a short but chaotic reign of six years. After a 10 day flirtation with Lady Jane Grey, the English welcomed as Queen, Mary Tudor, Henry's daughter by Catherine of Aragon. She was the first female to claim the throne since Matilda, the daughter of Henry I tried and failed in 1139. Mary was determined to bring Catholicism back to an England that had long since passed by affection and conviction into the Protestant camp. Resistance to her plans only served to make the Queen more stubborn and then vicious. The vision of staked and burning bodies of hundreds of Protestant martyrs was seared into the English memory and earned for the Queen much anger and hatred.

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The Sexual Politics of Elizabeth I – I

Lead:  On January 14, 1559, Elizabeth Tudor, the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn was crowned ruler of England. She faced a lot of problems, not the least of which, the monarch was a woman.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Prior to the reign of Elizabeth, the English had made every effort to avoid placing a woman on the throne, treating the possibility as it were a plague. Since the Norman invasion in 1066, a woman had aspired to rule only twice. The first was a disputed reign, the cause of much disorder and conflict. The second was a unqualified disaster. With all the difficulties that screamed out for Elizabeth's attention not the least of which was the nation's skepticism about her gender's potential for successful rule.

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Victor Gruen and the Shopping Mall

Lead:  Victor Gruen surveyed his creation and was deeply disappointed.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When Gruen arrived in America in 1938 on the SS Staatendam he was penniless. One of Austria's most promising young architects, just as he was beginning to receive lucrative contracts to provide innovative designs for Vienna's department stores, Adolf Hitler's Nazi cronies took over the country in the Anschluss. Gruen got out in time and soon established himself in the United States as a commercial architect of great creativity.

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Kristallnacht – III

Lead:  As a part of a steadily intensifying campaign of terror and intimidation against the Jews of Germany, the Nazis used the assassination of a minor German diplomat in Paris as an excuse to unleash a night of unspeakable horror.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Fueled by the virulent anti-Semitism of Adolf Hitler's ideological musings, driven by the constant drumbeat of propaganda hostile to the Jews, and organized by a Nazi Party aroused at the death of  Ernst vom Rath at the hands of a teenaged Jewish student, on the night of November 9, 1938, fires of hate were ignited all over Germany. Jewish businesses and homes were attacked and the sound of breaking windows filled the night. It was Kristallnacht - the night of glass.

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Kristallnacht – II

Lead: In November, 1938 the Nazis stepped up their campaign against the Jews of Germany on Kristallnacht - the night of glass.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In late 1938, Hershl Grynszpan was a seventeen year old Polish student of Jewish heritage. His parents had lived in the German State of Hanover since 1914. As a part of its anti-Jewish legislation, the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler had been placing great pressure on Jews, taking over Jewish business and forcing Jews to emigrate. Grynszpan's family was among those chosen by the Nazis for compulsory emigration or expulsion because they were native Poles.

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Kristallnacht – Part I

Lead:  On November 9, 1938 the full power of Nazi Germany was turned against its Jewish citizens. Their homes, businesses, and places of worship were attacked by carefully orchestrated mobs of roving vandals. It was Kristallnacht - the night of broken glass.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Kristallnacht was not the spontaneous eruption of nativist feelings. It was not the direct result of a lingering general hatred for Jews by the majority of Germans. It was a planned exercise, part of the Nazi Party's policy on race that had for two decades bubbled up out of the fever swamp that was Adolf Hitler's mind.

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