Massive Resistance II

Lead: The reaction of the Virginia political establishment to the 1954 Supreme Court decision outlawing segregated schools was called massive resistance. The plan was the inspiration of the Byrd Machine.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote from the Birmingham jail in 1963 that “privileged groups rarely give up their privileges voluntarily.” Perhaps nowhere has that best been demonstrated than Virginia in the 1950s. The news that the U.S. Supreme Court had unanimously declared segregated schools to be inherently unequal, therefore unconstitutional, was greeted throughout the white South with a combination of unbelief, fear, and defiance. To achieve unanimity on the Court, Chief Justice Earl Warren dealt with the constitutional question first and delayed the process of implementation. The South had time to comply or defy. Except for North Carolina, which devised a system of token and isolated desegregation, for the most part the South chose defiance. As it did in 1861, with equally lamentable results, Virginia led the way.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download

Massive Resistance I

Lead: After the Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that separate black schools were unconstitutional, Virginia’s white leadership resisted desegregation using legislation and theory, a campaign known as massive resistance.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From its founding by Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the Democratic-Republican Party, now known as the Democrat Party, was an alliance of Northern urban, usually immigrant groups, and Southern agricultural interests. It dominated American politics from 1800 until 1856. The growing sectional conflict leading up to the Civil War split the party and, because they were seen as champions of the Union, political dominance shifted to the Republicans. Outside Northern cities, about the only place Democrats held significant power was in the South where by 1900 racist white conservatives had begun to erect the discriminatory edifice of laws suppressing black civil rights that came to be known as Jim Crow.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download

The Man Pursued by War (McLean) II

Lead: In 1861 the first major battle in Virginia took place in the front yard of Wilmer McLean along Bull Run Creek. Seeking to protect his family from the fighting he moved them to south central Virginia.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It was not uncommon for civilians to remove themselves from areas of intense fighting. Up to this point war was, for the most part, left to soldiers. As the war intensified Federal generals such as Sherman in Georgia and Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley made destruction of civilian property a matter of military policy. Sherman, in particular, boasted that he had destroyed $100,000,000 in property during his dash from Atlanta to Savannah in the fall of 1864.

 

Read more →

The Man Pursued by War (McLean) I

Lead: In 1850 Wilmer McLean, a prominent merchant of Alexandria, Virginia married the widow Virginia Beverley Mason. They lived at her plantation, Yorkshire, in Fairfax County, Virginia.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: McLean was a son of one of the most prominent commercial families of Alexandria. His marriage to Virginia Mason, among Virginia's wealthiest women, brought him extensive responsibilities as manager of the family's holdings. Yorkshire was a 1200 acre tract close by the small creek known as Bull Run just outside of the village of Manassas Junction.

In the spring of 1861, the McLeans and their neighbors were well aware of the approach of war. The Confederate army stationed troops at Manassas to protect the area as it was a vital rail junction linking the principle north-south line with one that rest west into the Shenandoah Valley. This made the region a military target and on June 1st, General Pierre G.T. Beauregard arrived to take charge since in was becoming evident that Federal forces were beginning to move into the area with an eye toward taking the junction.

 

Read more →

Texas Invades New Mexico

Lead: After independence the new Republic of Texas experienced some acute growing pains.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Texas won its independence from Mexico in 1836. The disaster of the Alamo was soon followed by the defeat of Mexican General Santa Anna at San Jacinto. Sam Houston's experience as Governor of Tennessee and popularity as the architect of Texas' victory carried him into the Presidency of the New Republic.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download [5.65 KB]

Revolution in Paradise (Hawaii)

Lead: Its strategic position and economic potential were too great for Hawaii to retain its independence.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: In January 1891 David Kalakaua the last King of the Hawaiians died while on trip to California. His reign had characterized by rising political corruption and the increasing influence of Asian immigrants and white people, most especially citizens of the United States. While resenting this growing foreign influence Kalakaua contributed to it by signing two Reciprocity Treaties with the States which gave Americans a larger share of the Hawaiian economy as each year passed. Toward the end of his life he was forced by public opinion aroused by influential Americans to surrender many of his personal powers to the legislature by agreeing to what his successor called the "bayonet constitution."

 

Read more →

Black Sox Scandal I

Lead: America was just about begin its "return to normalcy" under Warren Gamaliel Harding when in the fall of 1920 a Chicago Grand Jury indicted eight White Sox players for throwing the 1919 World Series in what became the Black Sox Scandal.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1919, the Chicago White Sox were one of the finest teams in the history of baseball. The team's talent was in depth with excellent batting and several positions covered by more than a single outstanding player. In left field was Joe Jackson, one of the game's great hitters. On the mound spit-ball specialist Eddie Cicotte alternated with Claude "Lefty" Williams for pitching honors. They romped through the American League during the season and were highly favored to beat the lack-luster National League contenders, the Cincinnati Reds. However, in one of baseball's most sensational reverses, the White Sox had lost. Even before the first game rumors were flying that the fix was in and that several White Sox players had conspired to throw the series.

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download [5.88 KB]