White Officers and Colored Troops – Part II

Lead: In the uncertain year of 1863 during the Civil War, the Federal government established the Bureau of Colored Troops. Its goal: recruit, enlist, and muster African Americans into the army.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.               

Content: Up until the Civil War, blacks were not permitted officially to serve in the Army. With the passage of the Militia Act in 1862 (which allowed them to be used in military service) and the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, which went into effect in early January, 1863, northern white public prejudice against black military service began to break down. Whites began to show a willingness to tolerate the enlistment of black troops – particularly as the need for manpower in the Union Army escalated after the heavy body count in 1862.

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White Officers and Colored Troops – Part I

Lead: On July 17, 1862, during the Civil War, the U.S. Congress passed the Militia Act. African-Americans became an official part of the Federal military establishment.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Under a 1792 law, blacks officially were barred from army service, not permitted to enlist. Despite this prejudice blacks had served in both the American Revolution and would serve in the War of 1812. In mid-1862, the Lincoln Administration, sensing the need to expand strengthen the Union Army, took the first steps allowing blacks to enter service. The Militia Act permitted colored soldiers to serve in “any military or naval service for which they may be found competent.”

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DDT and Modern Environmentalism – II

Lead: In 1962 Rachel Carson animated the national conversation with Silent Spring, an explosive book describing the environmental havoc caused by .DDT.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: At first DDT, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, seemed a miracle. Modern agricultural practices had produced greater crop yields but had opened the way to greater infestation by pest insects. Some chemical insecticides were tried, but not until arrived in the late 1930s did there appear to be a true solution to the problem of insect control. As soon as the chemical gained USDA approval for use on plants and agricultural commodities, farmers snatched it up and crop production soared. The grayish white powdered insecticide killed nearly every insect which consumed it by interrupting respiration at the cell level. The insects literally suffocated from the inside out.

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DDT and Modern Environmentalism – I

Lead: It seemed to be a miracle. Farmers worldwide looked ahead to the prospect of lush fields of produce free of pests. All they had to do was use DDT.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the years following the Civil War, the United States Government, through the newly created Department of Agriculture, began to aggressively promote industrialized agriculture. It was an amazing success. Techniques developed at land grant colleges and applied by county extension agents brought a new level of technology to the ancient practice of growing food. Increased efficiency and mechanization made the American farmer the envy of the world. Per capita output soared and farm population began to shrink thus providing workers for growing urban industrial enterprises.

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Fort Sumter III

Lead: At 4:30 a.m. on April 12, 1861, after months of preparation, threat and posturing war erupted between the several United States of America. Southern forces attacked Ft. Sumter in Charleston harbor.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first engagement of the Civil War. South Carolina, the first to secede from the Union, had seized all Federal property in South Carolina. All except Fort Sumter. It had been one of three national forts in Charleston Harbor. Major Robert Anderson, its commander under orders from Washington, refused to surrender the fort, and by April 1861 tensions were high.

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Fort Sumter II

Lead: In February 1861, the newly formed Confederate government dispatched General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard to command Charleston, South Carolina, a city shimmering on the edge of crisis.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts. 

Content: By February of 1861, South Carolina, after seceding from the Union two months earlier, had seized control of Federal property in the state – with one exception. Fort Sumter, commanded by West Point graduate Major Robert Anderson, had refused to surrender. Confederate government sitting in Montgomery, Alabama, dispatched General Beauregard to Charleston to handle a tense situation which was becoming a symbolic point of tension North and South. Ironically, Robert Anderson was Beauregard’s artillery instructor at West Point, and at the time they were friends.

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Fort Sumter I

Lead: On April 12, 1861, the first military engagement of the Civil War began in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Ft. Sumter was the target.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Fort Sumter was built on a shoal at the entrance to Charleston Harbor. Construction began in 1829 and was still on-going at the onset of the Civil War. The fort was named after Revolutionary War hero, Thomas Sumter. It was one of three Federal forts guarding the approaches to Charleston Harbor, one of the best anchorages on the east coast. The other two were Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney. After Lincoln won the presidential election of November 1860, on December 20, South Carolina passed an order of secession. It was soon followed by six other states in the Deep South in the first wave secessionist sentiment.

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Louis Pasteur II

Lead: One of the greatest scientists of this era was one of the pioneers of the science of microbiology. His discovery that germs cause most familiar diseases is one of the fundamentals of modern science.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.               

Content: In 1865, the ever-practical Pasteur began work on diseases that were threatening the silk industry. Production was flagging and Pasteur was being called on to save domestic silk production. He discovered a microscopic parasite, which along with faulty nutrition, were the culprits. It took three years to come to these conclusions, but soon the industry was on the rebound.

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