American Revolution: Stamp Act Crisis I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: George Grenville, Chief Minister to King George III, was trying to manage a looming British financial crisis, but primarily was looking for money to pay for British troops based in America. Having levied a tax on the molasses used to make colonial rum, he wanted more money. Therefore, in 1764 he began hinting that Americans should pay for the paper used to transact legal business in the colonies. No such official dealings could be conducted on paper not bearing a governmental stamp. The government would sell the paper to the colonists and by this raise money for the troops. Colonial representatives were beyond emphatic that this stamp tax would be met with resentment and resistance. Grenville even toyed with the colonies by seeming to seek their input on the method of collection, but in the end it became clear that he was just being disingenuous and was determined to levy the stamp tax no matter what.

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Bretton Woods Conference

Lead:  With the defeat of Germany and Japan expected if not guaranteed, Allied governments met in July, 1944 to give some order to the postwar economic world.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Often war erupts when normal economic relations break down. When hunger, privation, or shortages threaten, nations are tempted to take by force what is denied them in the regular operation of the marketplace.

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Franklin Buchanan

Lead: The Civil War brought the naval career of Franklin Buchanan to an abrupt halt.

 Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: In the annals of the United States Navy, the service of few officers equals in luster that of Franklin Buchanan. A native of Maryland he went to sea when he was fourteen years old. When the Southern states seceded in 1861, the sixty-year-old Buchanan already had a distinguished and memorable career. He planned the organization of the United States Naval Academy and from 1845 served as its first superintendent. He was executive commander of the Navy's first major steam-powered warship, the Mississippi, and commanded the flagship of Commodore Oliver C. Perry in the 1853 expedition to Japan. On that voyage Buchanan acted as chief negotiator in the talks which helped open Japan to Western commerce. At the outbreak of hostilities before the Civil War, he was in charge of the Washington Navy Yard and watched with apprehension the departure for Confederate service of officers at whose side he had served for decades.

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Martin Luther Debates Johann Eck – II

Lead: In early years of the Protestant Reformation, public disputations or debates allowed religious leaders explain to their views. In Leipzig in 1519 Martin Luther debated the Catholic champion Johann Eck

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: His original name was Johann Maier but early on changed it to the name of his home village, Egg or Eck.  He received a superb education at the University’s of Heidelberg, Cologne, Freiburg and Tubingen, was ordained, and became lifelong professor of theology at the University of Ingolstadt a small Bavarian town just north of Munich. He developed the reputation as a careful scholar, but one talented in public debate. As contemporaries, Luther and Eck were acquaintances and apparently were on friendly terms, at least until the appearance of Luther's Ninety-five Theses on the question of indulgences.

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Martin Luther Debates Johann Eck – I

Lead: The rhetoric and opinions of Martin Luther helped bring an end to the comfortable religious and political unity of western Europe. His incendiary critique of Roman Catholicism tossed up champions of the Church. One of those was Johann Eck.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When Luther advanced his 95 theses in fall 1517 his desire was to provoke a debate about the role and power of the Roman Catholic Pope, but even further how the believer secures salvation. He had come to believe that no Church ritual, no righteousness on the part of the believer, indeed, no human agent, including priests and popes, could facilitate or mediate that salvation. To Luther, only God by Grace through faith in Christ could save anyone.

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The Great Eastern

Lead: In November, 1857, Isambard Kingdom Brunel tried to launch his magnificent creation. Great Eastern, the heaviest object anyone had ever attempted to move, got stuck.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Brunel was one of the most successful engineers of his day. He constructed what was at that time, the world’s longest tunnel, several unusual railroad bridges, and finally, Great Eastern. Conceived as the first luxury liner, the ship was designed to carry 4,000 passengers in complete comfort, haul enough coal for a non-stop round-trip from England to Australia, and earn her inventors’ money back in a couple of years. No such luck. No profit was ever made with Great Eastern.

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Eleanor of Aquitaine II

Lead: Turned out by one royal husband, the King of France, Eleanor of Aquitaine married his rival, the future King of England.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Strong and independent, Eleanor resisted at each stage of her career the role of quiet docile wife. After a stormy fifteen years in 1152, Louis VII of France had their marriage annulled. Their four daughters remained with the King and Eleanor was sent home to Poitiers a very eligible lady, possibly the richest woman in Europe. Within two months she was married, this time to Henry Plantagenet, the namesake and grandson of the King of England who was at that time pressing his claim to inherit the Crown. A successful invasion of England and the death of his chief rival yielded him the throne. Henry and Eleanor became King and Queen of England in December 1154.

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Eleanor of Aquitaine I

Lead: At her father's unexpected death in 1137, fifteen-year-old Eleanor, daughter of Duke Guillaume of Aquitaine, found herself heiress to a huge region of western France. It made one of the most eligible catches in Europe.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In a long and busy life Eleanor would be Queen of France and England, either marry or closely advise four kings, conduct romantic dalliances, engineer rebellions, rule England directly for long stretches of time and this in an era in which women were generally considered at best attractive appendages to their husbands and sons.

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