Convicts Arrive at Botany Bay I

Lead: The prisons of England were just too crowded: something had to be done.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: To solve the problem of a growing prison population in England, the government began in 1718 to deport or transport prisoners to the colonies in the American South. They were sold to shipping contractors who would sell them to plantation owners as workers on the coastal estates. This method of transportation ended with the coming of the American Revolution and the population of the prisons began to creep back up.

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President Grover Cleveland Under the Knife

Lead: In the summer of 1893, with the country in a financial panic, President Grover Cleveland underwent a secret cancer operation.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: As both Governor of New York and President, Cleveland had a reputation as a corruption fighter and political independent. He was the only United States President elected to two nonconsecutive terms in 1884 and then again in 1892 and the first Democrat in the White House since James Buchanan in 1856. Under the President who served between Cleveland's terms, Benjamin Harrison, Congress had passed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Western farmers were in favor of this believing that with more money in circulation, loans would be cheaper and life easier for the average American. The problem was that the government had to buy silver with treasury gold causing reserves to drop below the $100,000,000 required by law. People panicked and began to demand gold in exchange for paper money. Banks failed in this the so-called Panic of 1893 and the country was thrown into a short but violent economic depression.

 

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Walter Winchell

Lead: From the mid-1930s to the 1950s, arguably the most powerful journalist in the United States was Walter Winchell.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: For nearly three decades Winchell helped set styles, shaped public opinion, passed on juicy gossip, boosted the careers of those he admired and occasionally ruined others. He came from a troubled home and early on sought the escape afforded by show business. Winchell spent his teenage years and early twenties in the backwaters of America singing and dancing as a vaudeville performer. During the spring of 1920 Winchell began to put together a little gossip sheet for the members of the company with which he was touring. This led to a column in the "The Vaudeville News" and eventually employment on its staff. Ten years on the circuit had made Winchell into an entertainer and taught him how to reach and hold an audience, lessons he applied to great usefulness in the future.

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Palmer Raids II

Lead: In June 1919 the house of U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer was bombed. The bomber tripped and blew himself up along with the front part of the house.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Ironically, for a nation of immigrants the people of the United States go through frequent periods of reaction to immigration. In the wake of the Mitchell bombing, a wave of anti-immigrant fever spread across the country. Coming as it did in the years following the Russian Revolution, much of the press and many citizens believed the bombing and others like it that spring and summer were the work of left-wing radicals and communists, many of whom were Eastern European immigrants.

 

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Palmer Raids I

Lead: Just after 11:00 PM on the second of June, 1919 a bomb exploded in the entrance of the home of United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. The only victim was the bomber himself.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: It was no isolated incident. The bomb that shattered windows all over Mitchell's fashionable Washington neighborhood, including those of his neighbor Assistant Navy Secretary, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was part of campaign of similar attacks in eight other cities that night. In April, letter bombs had been mailed to thirty-six prominent Americans. Most were intercepted but the one mailed to former Georgia Senator Thomas Hardwick made it, blew off the hands of the maid who opened it and severely wounded the Senator's wife.

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Eleanor Gwyn II

Lead:  In the aftermath of the puritan ascendency, in the 1660s England re-opened its theaters. There on the stage of King’s Theater on Drury Lane, acclaimed comedienne Eleanor “Nell” Gwyn auditioned for her greatest role.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After nearly two decades of Puritan rule, the revival of English theater gave opportunity to actresses such as Nell Gwyn. By the age of 15, she had extracted herself from a dead job serving drinks at her mother's brothel and become England's most acclaimed comedienne. She captured the hearts of audiences and, eventually, that of the kingdom's most renowned theater lover, Charles Stuart, King of England.

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Eleanor Gwyn I

Lead: After nearly two decades of religious experimentation under the puritans, gradually, fitfully after 1660 the English began to loosen up. One giant step was that entertainment-deprived England reopened its theaters. This gave the big break to Eleanor Gwyn.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Cultural revival was the order of the day in the years following the restoration of King Charles II in 1660. Banished were the puritans and their attempt to rigidly enforce social behavior. Games could be played again on the Sabbath and the English could once again indulge in their love of the theater. Closed for twenty-three years, the theaters reopened with a splash -- elaborate costumes, intricate sets and for the first time, female performers. On April 8, 1663 the lights went up in Drury Lane at the King's Theatre. It would soon witness the emergence of one of England's favorites, Nelly Gywn.

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Video Gets Memory

Lead: In the early days, television was very exciting. It had one major problem. No memory. Once broadcast, a live television program was gone.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The networks had devised a way of filming live telecasts. The machine was a kinescope, actually a 35 mm movie camera which filmed live East Coast television for rebroadcast programs three hours later in the West. “Kines” were grainy, had trouble getting the television picture in sync with the movie camera, and were very expensive. By 1954 the networks were using more movie film than Hollywood.

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