The Conciliar Movement I

Lead: To a Europe beset by plague, war and economic depression, the Church offered precious little help.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the late 1300s Europe was in trouble. The Black Death was the in process of reducing the population by as much as a third. The Hundred Years' War between France and England was tearing up the French countryside and both countries’ economies. To make matters worse, the continent’s one unifying institution was itself in disarray. For seventy years Popes of the Roman Catholic Church lived in Avignon in southern France. Suspicious that the Church was then a pawn of the French king, English and German Catholics increasingly looked elsewhere for spiritual guidance.

 

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Whiskey Rebellion IV

Lead: In the winter of 1794 President George Washington sent an army into western Pennsylvania to put down a rebellion among farmers opposed to a federal tax on whiskey.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Passed to pay the lingering debts run up by the former colonies in the American Revolution, the excise tax on whiskey was deeply resented by farmers in the west who distilled spirits and used them for medicine as well as a form of money, trading whiskey for farm supplies, clothing and most other needed goods. When a citizen militia led by back country lawyer David Bradford threatened to sever western Pennsylvania from the rest of the state or perhaps even secede from the Union, President George Washington declared them traitors and sent a delegation to investigate and an Army to put down the rebellion.

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Whiskey Rebellion III

Lead: Aroused by the imposition of an excise tax on whiskey, farmers on the frontier of Western Pennsylvania took on the fledgling national government of George Washington.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1791, to pay off debts run up by the colonies in their fight for independence, the U.S. government, at the urging of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, passed a tax on whiskey. This tax struck at the livelihood of frontier farmers who could not get their grain east to market and so made it into whiskey, which they used for medicine and traded for all sorts of goods. It was their money.

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Whiskey Rebellion II

Lead: To pay off the war debt run up by the colonies during the Revolution, the government of the United States in the 1790s passed an excise tax on whiskey. Farmers on the western frontier of Pennsylvania rose in rebellion.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Unable to ship their grain to eastern markets, farmers in the hill counties south of Pittsburgh distilled the grain into fine whiskey. They used it for medicine and to trade for all sorts of goods almost like cash. It was their medium of exchange. When the government began to tax whiskey the first protests were peaceful. Six months after the passage of the Excise Act of 1791, delegates met in Pittsburgh to draft a protest. The delegates were very concerned to keep the peace and nothing significant was accomplished at this meeting.

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