Japan’s Morohito Hosakawa

Lead: In the summer of 1993, Japan's prime minister appeared to be the herald of vast changes in Japanese life. Less than a year later his resignation under fire revealed how much a part he was of that which was traditional and old in Japan.

Content: Morihiro Hosokawa was the youngest prime minister since World War II and his cabinet the youngest on record. He brought women into the national political process as never before. Social Democrat Takako Doi (Tah-KAH-koe DOE-ee) served as speaker of the lower house and a record three women were appointed to cabinet posts. Hosokawa held regular new conferences, informally talking to the press corps in shirt sleeves. He promised not only political reform but a new, more open approach to international relations. The prime minister stunned Japan's wartime generation when he took office, by saying that World War II was a "war of aggression, and it was wrong." Despite a genuine pro-American bias he refused to bend to pressure and rejected a face-saving statement on trade when appearing with President Bill Clinton in Washington in the winter of 1994. At the time of the crisis leading to his resignation, he was the most popular Japanese prime minster ever.

 

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Francis of Assissi II

Lead: Born into a prosperous commercial family Francesco di Pietro di Bernardone, Francis of Assisi, in 1208 answered a spiritual call to a life of poverty and service. His movement brought repentance and reform to a church in deep need of renewal.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Struggling to maintain its authority the face of a growing challenge from newly emerging nation states, the Roman Catholic Church was focused on institutional survival. Many ordinary believers, however, were convinced the Church had lost its way and were turning elsewhere for spiritual solace. Into such a environment came Francesco di Bernardone. A popular youth, he was raised in the central Italian town of Assisi, north of Rome in the Umbrian hills. In 1208 he had a spiritual crisis which, in turn, drew him into a life of pious service. Francis was a layman, whose spiritual journey included preaching and a life of consistent imitation of Christ. He celebrated poverty and stripped himself of all possessions and worldly encumbrances; he never insisted that personal poverty was the Christian ideal, but invited his followers to such a lifestyle. He considered that all nature reflected the divine and called all creatures his brothers and sisters.

Francis of Assissi I

Lead: In 1210, responding to the prompting of a lay preacher, Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone (informally Francesco), Pope Innocent III established the Order of the Friars Minor. Francis of Assisi had the vehicle by which he could spread his message of sacrifice and salvation.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Religious institutions are social organisms. They go through periods of robust energetic growth and spiritual enthusiasm then decline into periods of corruption and stasis, when the ideals of the faith dim and require reformation. Having preserved what remained of civilization and order in Western Europe in the centuries following the collapse of the Roman Empire, by the 11th century the Roman Catholic Church was locked in a bitter struggle for pre-imminence with the newly re-emerging and secular national states of England, France and Germany. The focus of this struggle was the authority of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. It was a struggle the church would eventually lose, but this decline would take another three centuries and culminate in the rending of the unity of Christian Europe in the Protestant Reformation.

Emma Lazarus

Lead: At first reluctant, Emma Lazarus gave in and wrote the words that helped build the symbol of America's welcome.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The money wasn't coming in and Joseph Pulitzer was becoming very frustrated. Publisher of the New York World, a Hungarian immigrant who fought in the Civil War, Pulitzer had taken, as his personal crusade, the task of raising money to build the pedestal on which the colossus was to rest. The arrangement was that France would supply the statue if the United States would build the base. Work in Paris was on schedule but in America, people did not seem to be very concerned.

 

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Charles Kettering and the Auto-Starter I

Lead: Until the second decade of the twentieth century, the automobile was largely the play-toy of the wealthy. In 1911, however, Charles Franklin Kettering helped change all by getting the thing started.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In early 1910, Byron T. Carter coasted by a stalled automobile on the Belle Isle Bridge in Detroit. He stopped to help the lady, took the metal crank, put it in the slot at the front of the engine, gave it a vigorous turn, it caught, snapped back, and broke his jaw. An elderly man, Carter contacted pneumonia in the hospital and shortly thereafter he died - another victim of the arm strong auto starter. This time, however, things would change. One of Carter’s friends was Henry Leland, President of the Cadillac Motor Car Company. He determined at that moment that no Cadillac in the future would be responsible for death or injury due to crank starting. It was said at the time that to start a car one “required the strength of a Samson, the cunning of Ulysses and the speed of Hermes.” The car would never become more than a frivolous and expensive toy if you needed a chauffer or a weight-lifting regime to simply start the thing.

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Henry’s Wives: Anne Boleyn

Lead: Anne Boleyn refused to be Henry VIII's mistress.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: She was not particularly beautiful, although she had dark hair, fine eyes, a long neck which gave her a certain graceful authority and a vivacious personality. Her sister Mary had been the king's mistress. The teenaged Anne followed her to court. From 1519 to 1522 she was educated and received a measure of social polish in the household of the Queen of France. At the outbreak of war between the two countries Anne returned from France and came back to court. Sometime in the next three years she caught the attention of Henry and he joined a not inconsiderable number of males at court vying for the girl's affection. By 1525 the competition dropped by the wayside and their relationship had become somewhat more than a royal dalliance.

 

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Henry’s Wives: Anne of Cleves

Lead: Henry VIII at last had a son but lost his Queen to sickness associated with childbirth. He needed a new wife.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: After mourning the loss of Queen Jane Seymour Henry set out to find a new wife. As a husband the King of England left much to be desired. He was fat and overbearing and had an unsavory reputation among royal families in Europe at the time. After all he had dismissed his first wife in the middle of great international dispute, married his mistress, chopped off her head and then married hr lady-in-waiting. Perhaps it was the jokes currently in fashion that made the search for a fourth royal wife so ludicrous. The young Duchess Christian of Milan may not have said that if she had two necks, the King should have one of them, but such a myth was consistent with the general trend of gossip abroad at the beginning of 1538. Mary de Guise of France might not actually have reacted to the Henry's expressed interest in her voluptuous figure by remarking that she might be a big women, but she had a very little neck, but, as you can see the King had a problem.

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