Taxation – America’s Disdain II

Lead: On February 3, 1913, the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution was adopted – making the income tax a permanent part of life in the United States.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the Civil War, the United States government relied heavily on tariffs (the taxes on imported goods) for revenue. Although the Constitution prohibited the government from imposing a direct tax on citizens, in 1862, during the Civil War, Congress passed an act which authorized the collection of the income tax in order to help finance a war that was costing the United States treasury one million dollars a day by 1862. With the Republic under threat, resistance to the income tax was not widespread. The wartime emergency income tax was reduced after the war and repealed in 1872.


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Taxation – America’s Disdain I

Lead: Since 1913, when the 16th Amendment authorizing the income tax was ratified, Americans have alternately bellowed or whined each year each year at tax time.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Historically, Americans have enjoyed a love/hate relationship with government’s revenues – that is taxes. It was disagreement over taxes imposed by Britain that helped spark the cry for independence in colonial America. “No taxation without representation.” Today, throughout the world, taxes are customarily paid with money. This is a fairly recent method of payment. From ancient times taxes were commonly paid in goods and services, including labor and military service. The most common form of tax in the ancient world and the largest revenue producer was the “tithe,” the giving of a fixed percentage of agricultural produce. Despite this,  collection of taxes were very efficient. Governments have always managed to get their due. Taxes supported the building of temples and monuments, the construction of   infrastructure such as roads and waterworks, they were used to increase of wealth of rulers, and, of course, the most expense thing any government can do, wage war. “Corvee,” or the mandatory contribution of personal labor to the state, was used by ancient Egyptians. It is the earliest form of taxation for which records exist.


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History’s Turning Points: America’s Chinese Obsession II

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s great turning points – America’s Chiang Kai-Shek obsession.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In a 1927 match made in Chinese political heaven, ambitious General Chiang Kai-Shek, one of the founders of the Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, married Soong May-ling, the sister-in-law of Revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen. Soong was a Christian and was educated in the United States. She attended boarding school in Georgia and Wellesley College. Her personal ties to many Americans, stated inclination toward democratic institutions, and Chiang’s alleged conversion to Christianity won for them extraordinary support in the United States in the 1930s and during World War II. This was despite the clear corruption of his regime and the on-going struggle with the Chinese Communist Party for control. This power couple seemed for many Americans a formidable bulwark in favor of democracy and Christianity and against international Bolshevism and fascist Japan.

History’s Turning Points: America’s Chinese Obsession I

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider one of history’s turning points – America’s Chiang Kai-shek obsession.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: One of the most fascinating diplomatic and personal alliances of the twentieth century was that between the people and government of the United States and Chinese strongman Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his fourth wife Soong May-ling.

The Panic Broadcast Part II

Lead: As the CBS broadcast of H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds progressed, many in the audience began to take it seriously and fell into panic.

 Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Orson Welles' career as a radio actor included the role of Lamont Cranston in the mystery series The Shadow but his greatest fame came when he brought his Mercury Theater company to Columbia Broadcasting for a series of radio dramas based on famous novels. For Halloween Eve, October 30, 1938, the company chose Wells' science fiction nightmare War of the Worlds, the dramatic description of an invasion by hostile Martians who destroy the earth.


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The Panic Broadcast Part I

Lead: On Halloween Eve, 1938, invaders from Mars landed on a truck farm east of Princeton, New Jersey.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: The invasion was harmless, one of the CBS Sunday night broadcasts of the Mercury Theater on the Air, a dramatic re-telling of Herbert George Wells' novel, War of the Worlds. Wells completed his story in 1897 and immediately it was a huge success. Orson Welles, the young director of the Mercury Theater, had for some time been interested in adapting the story as a radio drama and settled on broadcast within a broadcast as the plot. News reports and live, on-the-scene accounts breaking into what seemed to be an ordinary evening of musical entertainment, created a vivid realism that convinced many listeners they were witnessing an actual extra-terrestrial invasion by hostile visitors from Mars.


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Muslim Conquest of Spain II

Lead: Following the expansionist inclination of the Umayyad caliphate of Damascus, evangelical Islam by 714 had conquered almost all of the Iberian peninsula. In Spain they created a brand new society.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Disunity among Christians, powerful armies, and a sense of spiritual inevitability compelled the armies of God north through Spain and into central France. Everywhere Islam swept all before it. Not until the Christian Franks outflanked and defeated the Muslims at the first Battle of Poitiers in 732, did the Islamic tide recede and retreat.


Muslim Conquest of Spain I

Lead: The expansion of Islam in the centuries after the Prophet Muhammad’s death flowed east to India and west to the Visigothic kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain had powerful Moorish rule for more than seven centuries.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From 712 to 1492 some part of Spain was under Muslim control. At high tide, Arabs ruled almost all of Iberia. In the end, only Granada, dominated by the massive Alhambra fortress, could resist the Reconquista, the re-conquest of the peninsula, led finally by Christian forces united under Ferdinand and Isabella. The city surrendered in the year Spain turned its attention outward and sent Christopher Columbus on his journey to a new world..