Miracle of Anesthesia II

Lead: Until 1846 the work of the medical surgeon was a gruesome, often brutal exercise in torture, but for seventy years the solution had been just a giggle away.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: With the invention of the ligature - the stitch - by a French military surgeon in the sixteenth century, the practice of surgery began to take on a certain scientific respectability. No longer was the stump of an amputee dipped in boiling tar to seal the blood vessels nor were wounds cauterized with hot irons. They were sewn up. With the ability to close a wound as well as open it, a surgical operation might actually save someone's life on occasion. However, the strongest block to successful surgery was the pain it inflicted on the patient, or better said, the victim. Yet, after 1772, the solution, even though unrecognized for years, had at last become available.

Shabbatai Zevi II

Lead: In 1665, Shabbatai Zevi declared himself the long-awaited messiah of Israel. Within a year, he had converted to Islam and thrown the Jewish world into chaos and disruption.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After being cast out of his home town of Smyrna, Zevi began a long period of wandering, through Palestine and Egypt, attracting followers and continuing his life-long struggle with alternating periods of manic-depression and exaltation, during the latter of which he evidenced truly bizarre behavior. This both offended and attracted a growing number of followers. His most important was a brilliant rabbi, Nathan of Gaza, who, after meeting Shabbatai Sevi in February, 1665, experienced an ecstatic vision that saw his new friend as the Messiah. From that point, Nathan tried to convince him and others that he was, in fact, the long-awaited representative of God. This highly respected, independent confirmation tying his appearance with the kabbalistic story of creation, kicked off the Shabbatean Movement. By May 1665, Zevi was sure of himself and fully engaged in asserting his messianic mission.

Miracle of Anesthesia I

Lead: The practice of surgery was a brutal affair and lagged behind other sciences because people could not stand the pain.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The scientific revolution kicked into high gear during the years between 1500 and 1800. Galileo popularized the work of Copernicus the Polish scholar who insisted that the sun rather than the earth lay at the center of the solar system. William Harvey described the circulation of blood and Sir Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest thinkers, gave the universe a philosophical order and contributed to the development of calculus and higher mathematics. Botany, biology, and chemistry also enjoyed a time of advancement and new fields related to medicine, including bacteriology and nutritional science, emerged from this period of intellectual ferment. However, the practice of surgery lagged far behind its companion sciences. There could be little regular exploration or cure of diseased living human flesh until there was invented an effective pain killer. Most people would rather bear the illness or die than endure the torment associated with a surgical cure.

Confederados III

Lead: After the Civil War many Southern diehards, instead of submitting to federal occupation, migrated to Brazil.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the spring of 1972, then Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter made an official visit to Brazil. One of the most interesting parts of his tour was the City of Americana, with a modern population of 160,000. There Mr. Carter was greeted by descendants of the town founders, Confederates who came south after the U.S. Civil War. He gave a speech at a cemetery where American, Brazilian, and Confederate flags were displayed prominently.

The original immigration came during 1867-1868. They settled on large tracts of land provided cheaply by the Brazilian government, aware that their success might provoke an even larger wave of Southerners, perhaps as much as 100,000. By 1870 it was clear that no such mass movement would occur. Most of those remaining in the South, like Robert E. Lee, were fitfully accommodating themselves to the changes in the New South and denounced any suggestion of departure.

Confederados II

Lead: Horrified at the prospect of defeat, emancipated slaves, economic devastation, and Yankee occupation, in the years following the Civil War some Southerners emigrated to Mexico, to the Caribbean, and to South America.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While most leaders such as Robert E. Lee counseled gracious acceptance of defeat and accommodation to the New South, others were bitter and determined to leave. They were animated by the sentiments expressed in a song popular among whites in the South in the years following the war, a verse of which reads:

Confederados I

Lead: As the dreams of an independent Confederacy crumbled under the relentless assault of the Federal war machine, people North and South began to imagine what life would be like in a Southland humbled by defeat.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Union leaders given to mercy and forgiveness like Abraham Lincoln were prepared to accept the Southerners as if they had never been away. Lincoln, the long-suffering leader of a victorious cause, just might have been able to pull it off. He wanted to quickly restore the South to full participation in the life of the Republic with as little damage as possible beyond that directly associated with the military campaigns.

Battle of Cold Harbor II

Lead: In the spring of 1864 the Federal Army of the Potomac sped across the Virginia heartland in a series of battles followed by flanking maneuvers designed to envelop the rebel army and capture Richmond. Robert E. Lee stopped it at Cold Harbor.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Abraham Lincoln believed he had at last found a general would fight in Ulyssses S. Grant. Lincoln made him the top commander of the Federal armies, and in 1864 he set out to do what none of his predecessors had been able to do. In the Overland Campaign he pressed the northern army south ever closer to Richmond. All during May and June, at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, Yellow Tavern, North Anna and Haw’s Shop, Grant and Lee dueled for advantage in the race for the Confederate Capital, both sides enduring heavy casualties.

Read more →

Battle of Cold Harbor I

Lead: At Cold Harbor in summer 1864, the Federal Army of the Potomac under Ulysses S. Grant threw itself against almost impregnable Confederate lines. It was a terrible mistake.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Grant was newly installed as Chief General of the Federal Armies and as the campaigning season opened in 1864 he accompanied the Army of the Potomac, which was officially lead by George Meade. No one doubted, however, that it was Grant who was in charge and driving the Army before him. It was a well-trod path. Over and over in the previous three years Federal armies had crossed into Virginia to engage the Confederates with the intent to defeat them and take Richmond. Each time Robert E. Lee, with clever tactics, more highly skilled subordinates, grimly determined troops, and the artful use of maneuver, cavalry and artillery had taken the measure of the Yankees and beat them regularly. The Federals would then retreat, lick their wounds, regroup, and under another commander, President Lincoln having replaced the previous one, would have at it again, with the same result.

Read more →