The Odyssey of Ezra Pound

Lead: When Cardinal Hildebrand became pope in the year 1073, he took the name Gregory VII. He was a stubborn man and probably more than the average pope enjoyed the role the church claimed for him as God's representative on earth.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Once he came to office he began to attack the practice of lay investiture. When a bishop took office he was invested or given the symbols of that office, usually a ring or staff, by the king or duke who controlled the area in which he would serve. Gregory wanted to stop that, he felt that only Churchmen should invest Churchmen with these symbols of office. In February 1075, the pope decreed that clerics who accepted investiture from laymen were to be thrown out of office and laymen who invested clerics were to be thrown out of the church..


The Mayflower Compact III

Lead: In the movement toward representative government in the English and American experience there were bumps in the road. Despite their intentions as expressed in the Mayflower Compact the Pilgrims’ settlement in Massachusetts did not lead to greater democracy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The main problem for the Pilgrims, the first of the puritan sects to immigrate to Massachusetts Bay after 1620, was that they needed the talents and participation of all who settled there. Originally the voters in town meetings and eventually the General Court of the colony were called freeman, but being a freeman carried important obligations. You had to show up at the annual meeting of the Court to vote. To miss this resulted in a heavy fine. As the colony spread out and distance became an issue, it became clear that many settlers could not or would become freeman. Anxious to hold the loyalty of all colonists, in 1638 The General Court voted to allow communities to elect representatives or deputies to conduct the business of the colony. Though only freemen could serve as deputies or colonial officials, all male colonials who had taken a loyalty oath and were head of a family could vote.

The Mayflower Compact II

Lead: The Mayflower Compact of 1620 committed the Pilgrims to a just and equal government in their new colony on Massachusetts Bay. Its roots can be traced in surprising directions, but its legacy probably did not lead to increased democracy.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: One of the fascinating characteristics of democracy as it developed in England and the United States is that democratic institutions resist ideology and tend to promote consensus. Among the early proponents of freer representative government were religious ideologues such as the Puritans. They championed the parliamentary cause in two civil wars against King Charles I in the 1640s and many fled to the colonies of Massachusetts Bay after 1620. Their purpose was to secure the right to worship as they chose and to create a godly commonwealth.

The Mayflower Compact I

Lead: One of the icons of American democracy is the Mayflower Compact, the Pilgrim’s signed commitment in November 1620 to justice and equality in local government. The chance to govern themselves and pursue their religious impulses was a long time coming.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: When the tiny square-rigged Mayflower delivered its human cargo of 102 settlers out of their long, difficult Atlantic crossing into what would become the Cape Cod harbor of Provincetown in late 1620, the leaders of the expedition, later called Pilgrims, were nearing the end of a long sojourn. They were Separatists and represented a tiny radical outgrowth of the English puritan movement, an informal network mostly worshipping within the Church of England. Puritans were vigorous proponents of the doctrines articulated by John Calvin and wished to “purify” and remove all remaining vestiges of Roman Catholicism within the Anglican structure.

Jamestown Journey: Shays’ Rebellion II

Lead: Faced with growing anarchy and an arthritic Constitution, many in the new United States began to demand a better way.

Intro.: Dan Roberts and A Moment in Time with Jamestown - Journey of Democracy, tracing the global advance of democratic ideals since the founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.

 Content: When economic hard times hit New England in the mid-1780s, a growing number of frontier farmers turned to violence when farm foreclosures grew alarmingly and the Massachusetts General Court, dominated by coastal merchants, refused to provide debt relief. The farmers called themselves Regulators, but the movement came to be known as Shays’ Rebellion.


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Jamestown Journey: Shay’s Rebellion I

Lead: In the 1780s desperate New England frontier farmers revolted against tight credit and farm foreclosures in Shays’ Rebellion.

Intro.: Dan Roberts and A Moment in Time with Jamestown - Journey of Democracy, tracing the global advance of democratic ideals since the founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.

Content: In the aftermath of the American Revolution, New England coastal merchants, seeking to address the pent up consumer demand after an eight year war, bought large amounts of British goods on credit in hopes of selling them to both coastal and inland markets. Partly out of spite at her former colonies for having the nerve to rebel, however, Britain cut off American trade with the West Indies. Now there was no place to sell huge amounts of lumber, fish, hemp and other farm goods. When the mostly Boston merchants failed to pay their debts the British called them in. The merchants then called in their loans to western farmers who had only their land with which to pay their debts. Foreclosures spread west and in 1786 western Massachusetts farmers formed the Regulator Movement and united in the so-called Shays’ Rebellion, named for one of their leaders, former Continental army officer Daniel Shays, a farmer from Pelham.


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Elisha Graves Otis’s Elevator (Invention)

Lead: An experimental safety device developed by Elisha Graves Otis, a Yonkers, New York machinist, gradually transformed the urban landscape. His creativity added a new dimension to city living. Things could now go up.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: From almost the dawn of civilization, human society came to value communal living. Families would draw together for protection and commerce, their clan gatherings became villages which became towns, which in turn became cities. Increasingly complex urban living came to symbolize the power and wealth of a people. In Babylon, Carthage, Rome, and other capitols, wealth and monuments to imperial greatness were designed to intimidate and seduce enemies and friends alike. These cities attracted large populations, but most lived in poverty and squalor - too many people, too little space. The obvious solution was to build vertically, but until the modern era, buildings were limited in height. Buildings constructed of wood and mortar could be only be pushed so high because of structural weakness. In addition, excessively tall buildings were impractical since people and goods could not efficiently be moved between floors. High-grade steel and reinforced concrete solved the structural problem, Elisha Graves Otis solved the other.

Nixon Visits China IV

Lead: They were vigorous ideological opponents. Therefore, President Richard Nixon and the Communist leaders of China were in an excellent position to break out of old habits.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The habit of opposition can stand in the way of diplomatic progress. In the early 1970s for hard-nosed political and economic reasons, the old enemies, Communist China and the United States, reached out to one another. The United States was mired in a war in Vietnam it could not win without provoking a wider Asian conflict, Nixon needed a boost to his re-election chances, and the vast Chinese market offered hope for expanded trade to a troubled American economy. Mao Zedong and the other Chinese leaders were just emerging from the isolation of the highly destructive Cultural Revolution, needed a counter-weight in their disputes with the Soviet Union, and wanted U.S. concessions on the Taiwan dispute and the China seat in the United Nations. They also desired access to Western technology.