British Financial Troubles II (American Revolution)

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Despite deep-seated opposition to permanent military forces, after the Glorious Revolution in 1688 England acquired a ruling King, a Dutchman, William of Orange, husband of Mary Stuart. The foreign policy of William and Mary therefore primarily involved protecting Holland from the forces of French King Louis XIV, and interdicting French military ambitions elsewhere in Europe and the world. This power projection required much more than a small militia charged with constabulary duties in the cities and counties of England. It required a large standing Army and the maintenance of a major Navy. There were three wars with the French: 1688-1697, 1702-1713, and 1736-1763. This series of conflicts cost a lot of money and by the end of War of Spanish Succession in 1713, the primary source of governmental revenue theretofore, a tax on land, just wasn’t enough.

British Financial Troubles I (American Revolution)

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: In the years following the English Civil Wars in the 1640s and the Puritan governmental experiments in the 1650s, no sentiment was more firmly entrenched in the mindset of the English people than was the determination that there would be “no standing armies.” Two decades of having the government able to dictate religious, social, and political behavior at the point of the sword set English teeth on edge.

Alcatraz II

Lead: The regimen on “the Rock” was incredibly severe. Hardened criminals, were often reduced to babbling by the silence, the isolation, the discipline. The residents called it Helcatraz.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the 1930s the battle against urban crime seemed to be going against the forces of law and order. The aggressive young director of the FBI, J Edgar Hoover, convinced U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, that the solution lay in creating a “super prison” where hardened, intractable male prisoners serving long sentences could be sent. Word was out that the military had grown weary of the high cost of maintaining Alcatraz, its isolated outpost in the middle of outer San Francisco Bay. Cummings and Hoover decided to take over the island for their maximum security prison. Not only did it have the facilities, its distance from land, the closest mainland point being a mile away, and the treacherous tidal currents that swirled in and out of the Golden Gate, was thought to make escape nigh to impossible. They chose Alcatraz and James A. Johnston to run it.

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Alcatraz I

Lead: For 29 years perhaps the most intimidating sound in the American judicial system was the slammer, the collective crack of 250 pound automatic doors that, at the touch of a lever, enclosed the inmates of the U.S Penitentiary, Alcatraz.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: At 7:15 on the morning of June 12, 1962, a guard in the cell block of Alcatraz made his usual morning rounds. Outside a thick fog had descended upon San Francisco Bay and surrounded the tiny prison island obscuring the dawn and the view of the guards in the watchtowers above. Someone noticed that Frank L. Morris, John Anglin, and John’s brother Clarence did not get up. When they did not respond the guard entered the cell. In near disbelief, he announced the three had escaped the most fearsome prison in the Federal system. That escape would sound the death-knell of one of the most famous prisons in the world. Lubyanka, the Bastille, Fulsom, Sing Sing, the Hanoi Hilton, none would come close sharing the reputation of Helcatraz, on “The Rock.”

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JP Morgan Bails US Out of Bankruptcy

Lead: In 1895 John Pierpont Morgan, a New York banker, arranged to loan gold worth $65,000,000 to the United States Government. This may have prevented national bankruptcy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Before the establishment of the United States Federal Reserve System, government financial leaders were convinced that people would trust government issued paper money only if it was freely convertible to precious metal, gold or silver. Theoretically, anyone could go into a bank and exchange paper money with a face value of, say twenty dollars, for an equivalent amount of gold. During the depression triggered by the Stock Market Crisis of 1893, many people especially foreign investors exchanged their paper money for gold.