American Revolution: The Rising Threat of War II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: By the end of 1775 most of the counties of Virginia had established Association Committees. These set about enforcing the economic coercion tactics designed to punish Britain for the Intolerable Acts: nonimportation, nonexportation, and non-consumption of British goods. In Virginia, the Association Committees gradually assumed control of the local and Commonwealth government. Their technique of enforcement was public shaming designed to bring reluctant merchants and officials into line.

American Revolution: The Rising Threat of War I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: The First Continental Congress produced a colonial Bill of Rights, sent it off to a skeptical and aroused government in Britain, and set up a mechanism to wage a coercive economic war against the mother country. They established the Association which with branches in almost every colony, province, and county would enforce the tools of coercion: nonimportation, nonexportation, and non-consumption of British goods.

Cuba: José Martí, Apostle of Cuban Independence II

Lead: Poet, revolutionary, novelist, playwright, politician, martyr, José Martí, provided the theoretical underpinning for the Cuban Revolution in the 1890s and then with his own sacrifice, kicked it into life.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Ironically, all parts of the Cuban political spectrum, democrat to Marxist, look to José Martí as the inspiration of the Revolution. Beginning in the early 1890s he devoted all his energies to the cause of independence from Spain. He formed the Revolutionary Party and began recruiting the leadership for what was going to be a long struggle against the entrenched power of Spain and those Cubans allied by sentiment and economics to the island’s status quo. 

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Cuba: José Martí, Apostle of Cuban Independence I

Lead: Of the leaders that secured Cuban freedom from Spain none ranks higher in respect and admiration than Don José Julián Martí y Pérez. Among the people he was known as the Apostle of Independence.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Martí was born in Havana in 1853, the son of sergeant in the Spanish army’s Royal Artillery Corps. By the time he was a teenager, the differences between Father and son over many issues such as slavery were apparent. Martí despised the cruelty in the institution of slavery. He returned to Cuba for his schooling.

 

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Hong Kong II

Lead: In the early 1840s, to protect its merchants and their trading interests, Great Britain was seeking a trading base on the east coast of China. Captain Charles Elliot was in charge of the search.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the mid-1900s China, from ancient time the superior civilization in Asia, regarded all foreigners as barbarians. Concessions by Qing Dynasty of Emperors permitted European trade but only through the City of Guangzhou (or Canton). Foreign merchants had to stay in small enclosures called factories erected on the outside of the City. The British had been trying to secure diplomatic relations and a liberalized trade policy, but the Chinese rejected such overtures because this would have reflected equality. Dispute over the import of opium, however, gave the British the opportunity they needed. The Opium Wars demonstrated western military superiority and forced China to deal.

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Hong Kong I

Lead: Seeking a trading base on the coast of China, Britain used military and diplomatic muscle to acquire what was considered, at the time, a relatively useless island at the mouth of the Pearl River.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: European trade with China reached back to the adventures of the Polo brothers in the 12th century. After the publication of Marco Polo’s Le Devisiment du Monde, Europe’s fascination with all things Asian was insatiable. No fashionable London mansion, Parisian palace, or Milanese villa would be complete without Chinese porcelain or decorative art. Imported Asian spices became an essential part of the western European diet and Chinese silk an irresistible feature of clothing for even the lower classes. It was the huge popularity of oriental tea, however, that drew the great powers of Europe into direct intervention in the affairs of China and its neighbors.

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Battle of the Sexes (Tennis) II

Lead: Drawn by rich prize money and the taunts of Bobby Riggs, Billie Jean King, the best woman’s tennis player at the time, agreed to a match, the so-called Battle of the Sexes.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: There was a record crowd, for tennis at least, in the Houston Astrodome on September 20, 1973. The television audience was said to exceed 48,000,000. His recent victory over tennis star, Margaret Court, and his arrogant confidence that he would emerge the victor over King, led Riggs and others who believed in him to place bets on the outcome. In part, King believed she could provoke a shift in attitudes toward women athletes if she were able to win. The event took on aspects of a publicity spectacle. King was carried to the court on a golden litter by four muscle-bound men. Riggs followed in a rickshaw pulled by Bobby’s Bosom Buddies, six amply endowed women in a grotesque display of misogyny.

Battle of the Sexes (Tennis) I

Lead: The 1973 tennis match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs may have contributed significantly to the progress of women in sports and other parts of society.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: The 1960s and 1970s were decades of gains for women. The founding of the National Organization for Women, the steadily increasing influx of women into business and the professions, and the passage of Title VII in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX in 1972, demonstrated the incremental progress of women in the workforce, domestic life, and sports. Despite this evolution old sentiments die hard. These attitudes were especially strong in the arena of women’s sports. Many felt that women were inferior athletes, unable to compete at the level of their male counterparts.