A House Divided: Total War III

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Moving like a plague of locusts, the Union Army of William Tecumseh Sherman chewed its way across Georgia and then South Carolina in an early form of total war. He was determined to smash the Confederacy’s ability to prosecute the rebellion and even more to degrade its will to fight. One soldier wrote, we “destroyed all we could not eat, stole their niggers, burned their cotton and gins, spilled their sorghum, burned and twisted their railroads and raised Hell generally.” Organized into groups of ill-disciplined scroungers known as “bummers,” Yankees ranged over the landscape robbing and pillaging. Primarily intended to feed the Union army, they also tended to take whatever they could lay their hands on. And they were not alone. Georgia had Union sympathizers and many of them pitched in to plunder their rebel neighbors. Freedmen also participated in the destruction as did Confederate deserters and disaffected former rebel soldiers.

A House Divided: Total War II

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Having pushed the Confederates under John Bell Hood down into Alabama in Fall 1864, General Sherman abandoned his pursuit of the rebels and returned to Atlanta. He was weary of rehearsing tactics from the Confederate playbook and proposed a new strategy, one that would ignore Hood and go on the offensive not against standing armies or even organized resistance, but against the heart of the South. He secured permission from Grant and Lincoln for a most remarkable experiment in what would come to be called total war. On November 15th he set fire to all that had military value in the city, turned his back on Atlanta and set out for Savannah, nearly 300 miles to the east on the coast. He wrote, “….if I move through Georgia, smashing things…instead of being on the defensive I would be on the offensive…march(ing) a well-appointed army, right through [Jefferson Davis’s] territory, it is a demonstration to the world, foreign and domestic, that we have a power which Davis cannot resist….I can….march, and make Georgia howl!”

A House Divided: Total War I

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: War has never been pretty. Even when armies and nations attempted to regulate the conduct of warfare, for centuries non-combatants were inevitably drawn into the pain and suffering, their livelihoods, farms, homes, children, and the elderly. Long before the 20th century perfection of total war when machines of destruction rained down their devastation on enemy soldiers and their home-bound families alike, a glimpse of such coming horror played itself out in the States of Georgia and South Carolina during the American Civil War. The artist who sketched this gruesome canvas was Major General William Tecumseh Sherman who, if not the author of total war, was certainly one of its most visible early practitioners.

Sarah Bernhardt

Lead: On March 23, 1923, thousands of mourners lined the streets of Paris for the funeral procession of one of the leading actresses of the 19th century - “The Devine Sarah Bernhardt.”

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: She was born in Paris, France, in 1844 as Henriette-Rosine Bernard. Her Dutch mother was courtesan, a highly paid prostitute; her father was unknown. A sickly child, the girl was educated in a convent until one of her mother’s lovers, the Duc de Morny, Emperor Napoleon III’s half brother, arranged for the sixteen year old Sarah to attend the Paris Conservatoire, the government sponsored school of theatre.

 

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Cook-Peary North Pole Competition

Lead: In 1909 Robert Peary and Frederick Cook claimed to have discovered the North Pole. Their competing assertions form one of history’s mysteries.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: They began this saga as friendly associates.  Peary hired Cook as a physician on a Greenland expedition in 1891, and the Doctor unflappably set the bones of his leader’s legs after an accident on the shipboard part of the journey. They soon became competitors, however, in the race to the North Pole, which was made extremely complex because unlike the land-bound South Pole, the position of 90 North sits on drifting sea ice.

 

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Mr. Justice Story and Federal Power

Lead: One of the important issues left for future resolution by those who crafted the U.S. Constitution in 1787 was the balance of power within the federal scheme. Mr. Justice Joseph Story helped clear up that issue.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Joseph Story was perhaps the most brilliant legal mind of his generation. He grew up in Massachusetts, studied at Harvard, read for the law, and worked his way up the ladder of Commonwealth politics while gaining the reputation as a Jeffersonian Republican. Some of his political colleagues, Jefferson included, suspected that Story was really a closeted federalist, whose sentiments, once released on the federal level, would resolve the hanging question of sovereignty against the states. It turned out they were correct.

Malaysia II

 

Lead: Emerging from a post-colonial crisis in the 1960s, Malaysia is on track by the mid-21st century to be one of the world’s great economies.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After World War II, powerful Malaysian nationalist forces began pressing Britain to grant the archipelago its independence. Britain began the process, but beginning in 1948 mostly Chinese rebels led by the Malayan Communist Party conducted a bloody insurrection known as the Malayan Emergency. Commonwealth troops alongside Malayan nationals put down the rebellion, but it took a dozen years. With the end of the uprising Britain’s rule was over and a federated state was created which included Peninsula Malaysia, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. Singapore departed in 1965 and the remaining government is a federal constitutionally elected monarchy made up of thirteen states and three federal territories. The capital and largest city is Kuala Lumpur though much of the federal administrative apparatus is located 25 kilometers south in the planned city of Putrajaya.

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Malaysia I

 

Lead: Assembled from various components of the British Empire, the nation of Malaysia has made great strides since achieving independence.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Malaysia occupies the severe southeastern point of the Eurasian continent and lies athwart some of the richest, most traveled shipping lanes in the world. The indigenous Malay population was supplemented through commercial connections with Indian and Chinese traders sometime around the first century CE. The result is that just over 20% of the population of 30,000,000 is of ethnic Chinese descent. Hinduism and Buddhism were adopted by the native population until the arrival of Islam in the 1300s and today, with Muslims constituting around 60% of the population, Islam is the official faith of Malaysia, though freedom of religion is a constitutionally protected right.

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