Mujeres Libres II

Lead: During the Spanish Civil War, a women’s liberation movement, Mujeres Libres, free women of Spain, pushed for a far more radical social revolution for women than even their male allies on the left were willing to tolerate.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Even by contemporary standards, the condition of Spanish women in the 1930s was pitiful. Clearly oppressed, women’s wages were half that of men, daughters were handed over to husbands as property, divorce was illegal. Women could not be out at night without a chaperone. Until the War, women’s rights groups focused on minor adjustments such as legalizing divorce, but during the liberating early days of the civil conflict, women’s organizations, allied with anarchist political groups, began to press for serious social change.

Mujeres Libres I

Lead: The Spanish Civil War provided a window of opportunity for the reformation of society. Among the most aggressive groups seeking fundamental change was a feminist organization emerging from Spanish anarchism, Mujeres Libres, free women of Spain.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Political parties in the United States traditionally have been big tent consensus parties. While extremism left and right has certainly been a part of the American political spectrum, the nature of politics here pushes this sentiment to the margin. Extremists have influence, but must become a part of one of the major parties to exercise power. In Europe the development of democracy allowed a much more brilliant display of political variety, particularly up to the middle of the twentieth century. Political parties proliferated and often reflected narrow, extreme opinion.

Bayeux Tapestry II

Lead: To commemorate its victory on the battlefield at Hastings in 1066, the Norman aristocracy used a wonderful work of art, the Bayeux Tapestry.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The generations that followed the Norman invasion were not easy ones for England’s new rulers. Despite connections of blood between King William the Conqueror and the old Saxon royal house, most native Englishmen and all of the supplanted Saxon aristocracy considered William and his house to be usurpers, illegitimate pretenders to the throne. The Normans resorted to harsh tactics to bring the Saxons into line, ruthless suppressing land claims and planting armed garrisons all around the country.

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Bayeux Tapestry I

Lead: Propaganda comes in many forms. One of the most elaborate pieces of propaganda, this one from the 11th Century, was stitched.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The islands of Great Britain and Ireland have been immigrant destinations for centuries. Since before Roman times, wave after wave of continental invaders have braved the treacherous waters of North Sea or Channel to find habitation on the main island or the Emerald Isle just to the west. The white cliffs of southern England shimmered just at the edge of sight and Roman, missionary, Viking, Briton, Angle, Saxon, and Jute established homes and fortunes only to be challenged to defend their inheritance from subsequent marauders.

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House Divided: Collapse of the Confederacy V

NOTE TO SUBSCRIBERS: THE FIRST THREE IN THIS SERIES ARE IN THE ARCHIVES

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: With the prospects of Confederate defeat around Petersburg increasing with each passing day, in spring 1865 Robert E Lee planned for a last campaign. He would give up the Capital at Richmond, extract his army, march south, connect with Joseph Johnston in North Carolina, defeat William Sherman, and with the last remaining serious Confederate army, deal Grant such a resounding blow that the North would be forced to seriously treat for peace. It was a daring plan and, of course, it failed.

House Divided: Collapse of the Confederacy IV

NOTE TO SUBSCRIBERS: THE FIRST THREE IN THIS SERIES MAY BE FOUND IN THE ARCHIVES

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Robert E. Lee had known it would come to this. He told Jubal Early that a siege was disastrous and would doom his army to defeat. His lines were paper-thin around Petersburg and every day Yankee strength proved increasingly irresistible. Yet in the weeks of early spring 1865, he dreamed of a breakout, of joining Joseph Johnston in North Carolina and of a last campaign, first against Sherman, and then against Grant, whom he hoped he could give the slip.

House Divided: Collapse of the Confederacy III

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the end it was a matter of choice. Either it would be independence or freedom for the slaves. The rehearsed arguments across the South echoed the bitter national debates of the 1850s. Slavery was morally beneficial for both master and slave. Senator Hunter said, “what did we go to war for, if not to protect our property?” Howell Cobb of Georgia fumed, “if slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong. The day you make soldiers of them is the beginning of the end of the revolution.”

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House Divided: Collapse of the Confederacy II

Lead: One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is "A House Divided."

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: With the prospect of their dream of independence teetering on the brink of disaster, in the winter of 1865 Confederate leaders began to consider a solution to their military manpower problem that would have been unthinkable just four years before. They debated and then passed a bill offering freedom to African Americans who would fight in the rebel ranks.

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