Missouri Compromise II

Lead: With the U.S. Senate in gridlock over the admission of Missouri to the union as a slave state, policy makers turned to Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky. He helped broker the Missouri Compromise, both of them.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until 1819 the national balance between slave and free interests had been maintained by equal representation of the two sides in the United States Senate. Slave and free states had been admitted in alternating rotation. In 1817 Missouri petitioned for admission as a slave state, but an amendment passed in the House threatening to bring slavery to an end in that border state.

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Missouri Compromise I

Lead: In 1820 Henry Clay helped broker a compromise that, for a time at least, calmed the growing sectional passion over slavery. It was in the prophetic words of Thomas Jefferson, “a reprieve only, not a final sentence.”

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The framers of the U.S. Constitution tried to put slavery to sleep. Compromises forecast an end to the external slave trade by 1808 and counted slaves as 3/5 of a human for the purposes of congressional apportionment. Most thought slavery was going to fade away. The eastern plantations were playing out and there loomed no cash crop on the horizon that would stimulate the demand for increased slaves. The following three decades were an era of population growth, heady nationalism and western expansion. The number of states had steadily grown. Sentiment against slavery had increased in the U.S. House of Representatives. This body reflected the increasing population in northern states where slavery was more and more held to be morally offensive. In the Senate a rough balance remained – eleven so-called free states, eleven slave states. This balance had been strictly maintained by alternating admissions, a slave state then a free state and so on.

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A House Divided: The Tide Turns IV

 

Lead:  One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is A House Divided.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The American Civil War, Phase One, 1860-1861, Confederate Consolidation; Phase Two, 1861-Spring 1862, Union Ascendancy, particularly in the West; Phase Three, Spring 1862 through Gettysburg, Confederate Ascendancy; Phase Four, July 1863 through Spring 1864, The Tide Turns; Phase Five, Stalemate in Virginia, Union triumph in the South and West.

A House Divided: The Tide Turns III

 

Lead:  One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is A House Divided.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Looking at the Civil War in Phases helps sort out the sometimes confusing course of events and demonstrates how the fortunes of Union and Confederacy ebbed and flowed. By May 1864 the Tide had turned and the power of Northern industrial and financial strength began to make possible significant Union progress. There was a new Yankee commander facing Robert E. Lee’s dwindling forces and increasingly narrow options. Ulysses S. Grant, determined to use his superior numbers and material resources, hammered away at Lee in the Overland Campaign. And though Lee was successful in the Wilderness, at Spotsylvania and in the terrible fighting at Cold Harbor, Grant refused to let up, wheeling around Lee’s right flank and soon the Southern miracle worker ran out of miracles and was slammed with his back on the defenses of Richmond and was forced to endure nearly a year of siege before Petersburg

A House Divided: The Tide Turns II

 

Lead:  One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is A House Divided.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: If one looks at the American Civil in phases, Phase One would be Confederate Consolidation ending at the First Battle of Bull Run, July 1861. Phase Two would be Union Ascendency August 1861 until May 1862 with Union forces rolling up victory in the West. Phase Three: Confederate Ascendancy – May, 1862-July 3, 1863. Union morale collapsed as rebel forces were victorious from Jackson’s valley campaign to the Seven Days, Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. Only the strategic Union victory and reversal of the Lee’s first Northern invasion at Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation strengthened Northern prospects. Lee’s victories tempted him north a second time toward the disaster of the third day at Gettysburg.

A House Divided: The Tide Turns I

Lead:  One hundred and fifty years ago the Republic was facing its greatest crisis. This continuing series examines the American Civil War. It is A House Divided.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While the American Civil War continued from 1861-1865, major combat often shifted from one state or theater to another, came in fits and starts, with idle periods for refitting and rest punctuated by intensive campaigns and major battles. One way of looking at the war is to see it in phases.

Battle of Actium II

Lead: For thirteen years after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, Marc Antony and Caesar’s nephew Octavian circled around each other seeking ultimate power in the Roman Empire. The issue was decided at Actium.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus was completing his studies at Apollonia (now in Albania) when word came that his great uncle and patron had been murdered in the Senate chamber by conspirators led by Cassius and Brutus. He returned home and found he had been adopted as son and heir by Caesar in the elder’s will. Thus began a fatal struggle with his rival Marc Antony that would last over a decade. Antony’s enemies in the Senate led by Cicero soon allied themselves with Octavian, made the youth a Senator and then Consul, and forced Antony to withdraw with his forces into Gaul which is present day France.

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The Battle of Actium I

Lead: In the fall of 31 BCE, Roman forces allied with Octavian, nephew of the assassinated Julius Caesar, defeated the combined fleets of his great rival Marc Antony and Antony’s consort Cleopatra. It was the end of much more than Antony’s ambitions.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The events that culminated at the Battle of Actium marked the end of the Roman Republic. Actium was a strategic village on the south side of the entrance to the vast Gulf of Arta, known today as Amvrakikόs Kόlpos in the west central region of Greece. It became the center of the Roman universe that fall because it was the point of clash between rival factions in the leadership of the arthritic Republic, clearly in its last days of life.

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