American Revolution: The British Army in Hostile Colonial America III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.
Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts
Content: The presence of an occupying army in Boston after 1768 was a scary thing, but scary or not, the citizens of the city were determined to resist this indignity. The Commonwealth refused to pay for quartering the British troops, but its property owners were perfectly willing to rent space to house the soldiers at a premium. The existence of a permanent garrison generated an uptick in business for food purveyors and tavern owners, but from the beginning relations between town and army were harsh and disposed to end badly.

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American Revolution: The British Army in Hostile Colonial America II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.
Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts
Content: In 1768, the British government stationed a permanent standing army in Boston to keep order and assist with tax collection. This was a bad idea. Englishmen on both sides of the Atlantic hated standing armies and soon the troops found themselves unwelcome and abused in all sorts of ways by the people they were supposed to control. Boston was not alone in experiencing the indignity and subjugation that a standing army inflicts upon the population.

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American Revolution: The British Army in Hostile Colonial America I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.
Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts
Content: On October 1, 1768 soldiers of the 14th and 29th British regiments debarked from transports and landed in Boston, Massachusetts, guarded by British naval ships of the line. Responding to the request of Governor Bernard who had clearly lost control of the streets of Boston, the government in London had stationed a standing army in the colony to collect taxes and keep order. In the previous century, during the English Civil War and the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, Englishmen had endured the indignity and coercion of military occupation under the Parliamentary Army. There was nothing an Englishman hated more than a standing army and the royal government had chosen to inflict one on the colony most primed to despise such a move. Massachusetts was a Commonwealth whose governmental institutions, commercial society, and ordinary citizens, in the view of the royal Governor, were seditiously teetering on the edge of open rebellion.

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History’s Turning Points: Who Didn’t Discover America II

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider history’s turning points: who really discovered America.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Setting aside legendary, ethnic, and national enthusiasts, there are basically three candidates in the race for European discovery of the Western Hemisphere. Prior to the voyages of Columbus, who clearly laid the groundwork for the genocidal destruction of native-American culture and the colonization by Europeans of the western isles, the second group to settle parts of America were Norsemen from Scandinavia. Until the 1800s, most scholars confined the Norse sagas firmly to the realm of legend. Then archeological discoveries made it clear that part of their narrative was true. The first to land in the West was Bjani Herjolfsson who missed his landing on Greenland and briefly touched Labrador. He shared his discovery with Leif Ericson, and in several attempts the Vikings tried to settle the flat, wooded country they called Vineland, but the Norse were not colonizers. They lacked the capital necessary to establish permanent settlements and soon cold, wolves, and hostile natives caused them to abandon their attempts after about a dozen years.

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History’s Turning Points: Who Didn’t Discover America I

Lead: Historical study often helps reveal twists in the human journey. Consider history’s turning points: who really discovered America.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The ongoing debate surrounding Columbus Day, the annual celebration in the United States of that fateful dawn in October 1492 when Italian explorer, in service to the Spanish crown, Christopher Columbus, made landfall in the Bahamas, is often quite lively. Yet, in reality this is essentially a Euro-centric argument. Scholars or ethnic advocates exercise their theories and marshal their evidence over which European or eastern explorers “discovered America.” Surprisingly, there are not a few ideas about who beat the Genoese sea captain to the Western hemisphere and they often originate with ethnic groups and their cheer leaders. Legendary black Africans were said to have made it to western shores in 1500 BCE followed by Phoenicians in 600 BCE and Roman explorers in 64 CE. One of the most interesting conjectures is that of a Chinese expedition led by Hoei-shin, sailing east across the Pacific in the year 499. The exotic legend of the Irish cleric St. Brendan who, with 17 monks, discovered a western island where birds actually spoke Latin before piloting their Celtic boat covered with skins back to Ireland.

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Elizabeth Vigee LeBrun

Lead: In 1778, young French portrait painter Elisabeth Vigee LeBrun was summoned to Versailles to become the court painter of one of the most fascinating figures of French history—Queen Marie Antoinette.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Marie Louise Elizabeth Vigee LeBrun was born in Paris in 1755. She received art lessons from her father. She was largely self-taught at a time when female artists were denied admittance to art academies. By age fifteen, Vigee LeBrun had demonstrated such skill that she able to help support her widowed mother and brother. At the age of 20, at the insistence of her mother, Vigee LeBrun married their landlord, Jean Baptise Pierre LeBrun, an art dealer and artist. By copying many of the fine works around her, she later recalled that she “received the best lessons I could have attained.”

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Voyage of Magellan IV

Lead: Seeking a passage through the American land mass as a short cut to the rich spice islands of East Asia, Ferdinand Magellan and a crew sailed south along the coast of South America in the early months of 1520, looking for strait to take them through.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: While wintering in San Julian, a harbor in present day southern Argentina, three of his captains led a mutiny that threatened the expedition, but Magellan ruthlessly suppressed it, killing one leader, beheading another and leaving the third stranded on the beach. The rest of the mutineers Magellan wisely pardoned.

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Voyage of Magellan III

Lead: Commissioned by King Charles I of Spain to find a short cut through the Americas to the islands of southeast Asia, Ferdinand Magellan in command of five ships left the Spanish port of Seville in August, 1519. Thus began one of history's greatest voyages of exploration.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Prior to the voyages of Columbus beginning in 1492 and the systematic exploration of Africa by the Portuguese in the 1480s and 90s, Europeans had little accurate information about the earth's size. Their knowledge was based on the theories of the second century Greek writer Ptolomy who underestimated it. Because of this geographers were convinced that Japan and China lay only a few thousand miles west of Europe. Columbus's trips proved those estimates to be wrong. With the first accounts of Vasco de Balboa who reported finding a new Pacific Ocean on the other side of the new world in 1513, it appeared that the earth was quite large indeed.

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