Nixon Visits China I

Lead: On February 21, 1972, U.S. President Richard Milhouse Nixon arrived in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. For the Chinese and for Nixon it was a meeting born of necessity.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Until the middle of the twentieth century, relations between China and the United States were limited. Up to 1920, the United States was at best a regional power and played a role in East Asia secondary to Britain, France, and even Russia. This had begun around 1900. The United States acquired the Philippines and therefore became a major player in Asian affairs, and it emerged from the First World War as a truly global military and economic power.

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Birth of the FAX

Lead: In one of its earliest forms, the facsimile, known today as the FAX, was an experimental newspaper, delivered by high frequency radio broadcasts.

Intro. : A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: By the 1920s, radio transmission of newspaper photos was a regular part of print journalism, but the process was of restricted value because it made use of expensive photographic paper that had to be chemically developed. One inventor, a transplanted Brit, William George Harold Finch, wanted to take the idea a step further. He developed a process that used radio waves to transmit written words and pictures to a home receiver similar to an AM radio. The printer was very slow and produced results that were rather crude by current standards, but the idea was so intriguing that several big-city newspaper papers, such as the St. Louis Times-Dispatch, began experimenting with Finch’s equipment and that of his rival John Hogan. Perhaps this was a defensive tactic. Newspapers were a print medium and their publishers had convinced themselves that radio and its infant cousin, television, were too transitory to be satisfactory. They believed that people wanted their news in tangible form.

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Freedom Summer

Lead:  In 1964 the efforts of Civil Rights activists to register African American voters in Mississippi became known as the “Freedom Summer.”

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After the landmark “Brown” Supreme Court decision, Civil Rights groups worked hard to end segregation and political discrimination in the deep South. There such practices were deeply entrenched and changes were strongly resisted by many whites. In the summer of 1964 a coalition of civil rights organizations including CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, sometimes known as SNCC (snick),  focused their efforts on Mississippi – since just 6.7% of blacks were registered to vote. That number was intentionally kept small in a large part due to institutional obstruction such as requiring African Americans to pay poll taxes and pass tests that were not required of white voters.

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First Ladies: Margaret Smith Taylor

Lead: The wife of Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War and 12th President of the United States, passed most of her marriage moving from one frontier army post to another. Her fifteen months in the White House were spent largely in seclusion.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Born in Calvert County, Maryland, the daughter of a well-to planter and veteran of the Revolutionary War, Margaret Smith met her future husband while visiting relatives in Kentucky. They were married the following year and began the nomadic life that enveloped his nearly four decades of military service. Insisting on going with Zachary to the many wilderness stations to which he was posted, she raised her four surviving children in crude wintertime log cabins and warm weather army tents. Against their wishes, daughter Sarah eloped with young Lt. Jefferson Davis, the future President of the Confederacy. She died of malaria after only three months of marriage. Margaret’s favorite post was Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and from there she received the news of her husband’s exploits in the Mexican War.

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Little Jack Horner IV

Lead: Beginning in 1536, King Henry VIII of England began to confiscate the once-Catholic monasteries of England. His seizure of Glastonbury was made easier by the treachery of Thomas Horner.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Most of the monasteries submitted to this process with little resistance. Henry actually showed some compassion, giving some of the priests he considered unemployable a small pension for life, but those who resisted, he crushed ruthlessly. One those who held out was Richard Whiting, the Abbot of the ancient Cathedral at Glastonbury, near the western coast just south of Bristol. Whiting was eighty and had little to lose, but he tried to placate the King. He sent a Christmas present, the deed to twelve manorial estates which he hid in a Christmas pie. He entrusted this pastry delight to his steward, Thomas Horner, and sent him off to London. Horner was a realist. He knew very well that Whiting's gesture was useless. Henry would have Glastonbury. On the way, the disloyal steward popped open the pie and stole the deed to the rich manorial estate at Mells.

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Little Jack Horner III

Lead: Faced with confiscation, Abbot Richard Whiting of the Cathedral at Glastonbury, at Christmas 1539, sent his trusted steward, Thomas Horner with a gift to appease King Henry VIII. This futile gesture turned out to be rich opportunity for Jack Horner.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In its early years, the Reformation in England, was none to secure. King Henry VIII remained a theological and emotional Catholic until the day he died. The primary reason for removing England from allegiance to the Roman Church in 1534 was that the pope refused to give him a divorce from his first wife who could not produce for him a male heir. The Protestants around Henry were always a little nervous that the King, on a whim, might act on his true Catholic sentiments and go back to Rome. His chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, convinced the King that if he dissolved the monasteries of England he could accomplish two things. By confiscating them the King could fill his depleted treasury, something that always appealed to Henry, and, because many monasteries were hotbeds of Catholic sentiment, he could suppress a potential threat to the newly Protestant Church of England. In 1536, Henry and Cromwell began to close the monasteries. The King kept some for himself, but wisely distributed the balance to his family, friends and supporters throughout the realm. This land transfer meant a large number of influential people would be committed by pure self-interest to the survival of the Reformation.

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Little Jack Horner II

Lead: To get his hands on the monastic lands of Glastonbury Cathedral in 1539, King Henry VIII of England relied on the treachery of the Abbot's assistant, Thomas Horner.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: To secure his family's lock on the English throne, Henry VIII felt he had to have a male heir. Since his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, had failed to produce a son, he divorced her. To do so meant England had to renounce the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Pope. Henry became the Supreme Head of the Church and then, beginning in 1536, started closing the monasteries, many of which were lingering hotbeds of Catholic sentiment in England.

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Little Jack Horner I

Lead: "Little Jack Horner sat in a corner eating of Christmas pie,..." Legend has it that his name wasn't Jack but he definitely pulled out a plum.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: King Henry VIII of England had a serious problem. As he moved into middle age he began to despair of ever producing a son with his Queen Catherine of Aragon. She was deeply devoted to her husband but could not deliver to him the male heir which he was convinced would secure his family's lock on the English throne into the future. After repeated attempts to convince Pope Clement VII to dissolve his marriage, he renounced the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church. With the Act of Supremacy in 1534, the King, not the Pope, became head of the Church in England. With this new power he divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn. Anne did not give him a son, but her successor, Jane Seymour, did and Henry considered his dynastic problems largely solved.

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