Battle for Color TV II

Lead: In the 1940s two corporate giants, NBC and CBS, fought over the means of broadcasting television in color.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: After World War II, NBC under its chairman, David Sarnoff, had begun commercial black and white television broadcasts and was selling TVs by the truckload. Its great rival, William Paley’s CBS, was producing Black and White shows such as Ed Sullivan but at the same was experimenting with color television in hopes of getting a jump on the competition. The problem was the CBS color system used a spinning wheel with color filters in the camera and in the TV set and produced a signal which could not be received by existing black and white TVs without a relatively expensive converter. Sarnoff had too many sets out there to give up his advantage and began a campaign to smear the CBS system. NBC was working on an all-electronic color system, without the cumbersome spinning wheels, but which they thought would not be ready for years. By 1950 CBS was ready and had applied to the Federal Communications Commission to designate its system as the only standard. Both sides were at it now. Secret meetings with congressmen, lobbying, accusations in the media. Millions were at stake. Finally, the FCC approved CBS color in October 1950 and the courts struck down NBC’s court challenge. The problem was, not a single CBS color set had been sold, just a lot of useless black and white sets.

 

 

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Battle for Color TV I

Lead: If Peter Goldmark had had his way, television would have never been broadcast in black and white.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: By the late 1920s most of the technical problems of TV broadcasting were solved. A way had been found to convert light into electricity. The transmission of this electrical signal would be done just like radio, but the major obstacle proved to be the way in which the signal would picked up or scanned. Television is in many ways similar to a motion picture. Characters in a movie don’t move. Motion picture film is simply a series of still photographs put end to end and run so fast across the screen that the mind of the viewer gets the impression of movement. Television operates in basically the same way. Hundreds of frozen images per second are picked up or scanned by the camera, converted to electricity, and then sent on to the TV set which sits the next room or fifty miles away and reconverts the signal.

 

 

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Otis v. Hutchinson III

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

 Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

 Content: The passage of the Stamp Act in 1765 found the colony of Massachusetts in political gridlock between two great families. The Hutchinson clan, allied with royal governor Bernard, was led by Lt. Governor and Superior Court Chief Justice Thomas Hutchinson. On the other  side was the Otis family led by James Otis and his son James, Jr. Up to this time the Hutchinson cabal had held sway and the logjam in politics meant that Massachusetts would likely submit to the collection of the Stamp tax. The news that Virginia had passed a series of resolves condemning the tax spurred into action Boston’s newspapers and a third network of activists who began use violence against the tax collectors and their supporters. This third group was an informal, shadowy assembly who first called themselves the Loyal Nine, but eventually chose the infamous name which went down in history, the Sons of Liberty.

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Otis v. Hutchinson II

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

 Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

 Content: Thomas Hutchinson hailed from an old Massachusetts family. His ancestor Anne Hutchinson had been banished in the early years of the colony for unorthodox religious opinions, but her descendant was a solid citizen, a Harvard graduate, and a wealthy, successful merchant. As Lt. Governor and Chief Justice of the Superior Court, during the Stamp Act Crisis of 1765, he came to represent accommodation to the desires of the British parliament to tax the American colonies to pay for British troops stationed in America.

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Otis v. Hutchinson I

Lead: In the 1700s the United States broke from England. No colony in history had done that before. This series examines America’s Revolution.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: One of the most important results of the growing antipathy between Britain and its North American colonies in the 1760s was the significant political re-alignment within the colonies that arose out that conflict. Old alliances within the colonies, such as among the first families of Virginia of Virginia, built on beneficial economic connections with London, came under attack from new forces more than willing to consider an independent course for American society, politics and business. The Stamp Act Crisis of 1765 gave these new factions a chance to identify the old alliances as pawns of Great Britain, responsible for unpopular and what many considered to be unconstitutional taxation without representation, and in some cases allied with London in undermining American liberty.

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Marconi’s First Transatlantic Transmission

Lead: At the end of 1901, twenty-seven year old Guglielmo Marconi made the first transatlantic wireless transmission, but his outstanding achievement, like so many of the breakthroughs of science, built on the discoveries of others.

 Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: For generations prior to Marconi’s historic transmission, science had known that electrical current emanating from telegraph wires could excite or energize metallic objects at not-inconsiderable distances. This phenomenon was given theoretical credence in an 1865 essay by English physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, who posited that electrical impulses travel through space in waves in a manner quite similar to light waves and at the same speed. In the 1880s German scientist Heinrich Hertz proved that electrical current could be manipulated and transmitted at will between non-connected objects through a special medium he called the ether.

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British General Strike of 1926 IV

Lead:  In the spring of 1926 Britain endured the only General Strike in its history.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

 Content: Labor leaders were frustrated. Led by Walter Citrine of the Trades Union Congress, they wanted to work out a settlement of the looming strike of the mine workers and the possibility of a national sympathy strike, but radical rank and file workers pushed for a confrontation. The conservative government of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin was clearly on the mine owners’ side and had used a nine-month cooling off period to prepare. Labor was not prepared, but when the mine owners locked out their workers and a million of them went on strike, on May 3, 1926, a million and a half transportation, electric, steel and dock workers followed right behind. It was the only time in British history when the vast majority of organized industrial workers gave support to another group of workers for more than one day.

 

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British General Strike of 1926 III

Lead: Wracked by internal divisions, in spring 1926 the labor movement in Britain called the only General Strike in England's history.

Tag: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: In the early part of the century, unions representing thousands of British industrial workers were locked in a running debate on the way labor should deal with management. Should unions work within the system or assault it from the outside -- confrontation or cooperation? The leaders of the Trades Union Congress, an umbrella group representing many unions and the members of the British Labor Party were in favor of cooperation. Most were socialist in their outlook, but they advocated gradual reform of society. Among rank and file workers however, there were Communists and radicals who considered their leaders wimpish and wished to remake society along Marxist lines. They looked for confrontation. In May 1926 coal miners gave them their chance.

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