New Jersey Gives Women the Vote

Lead: In its 1776 constitution, almost by accident, the state of New Jersey gave women the right to vote.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The New Jersey Constitution was a hastily assembled affair, put together under the pressure of wartime. Its only requirement for suffrage was a property requirement. The franchise was extended to all inhabitants who were worth £50 or more. This included women and, for that matter, free blacks who were able to muster the financial assets. This did not mean that women voted in large numbers at first. Few married women owned property independently from their husbands. That left prosperous single women and widows who were not in abundance.

 

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Paul Revere’s Ride II

Lead: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow captured the excitement and import of Paul Revere's famous ride, but on that night’s events the poet did not get his facts quite right.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Sometime in the evening of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere discovered that his best laid plans were falling apart. It was discovered that the British had dispatched several hundred troops to capture colonial ammunition stored at Concord, Revere had pre-arranged a signal to fellow patriots waiting for news of the British route so the alarm could be spread. When Revere went over to Charlestown to check whether word had been sent, he discovered that his men were confused by "one if by land, two if by sea," and no one was doing anything. Revere borrowed a horse and was off.

 

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Atomic Dawn V (Nuclear Age)

Lead: With Harry Truman's decision to release the first atomic bombs for use, the Manhattan Project prepared for its climactic task.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The Trinity Test in the desert of New Mexico on July 16, 1945 had proven the design put together by Robert Oppenheimer's scientists and Captain Deak Parson's team of ordinance specialists. During the previous year, Parsons, anticipating its use, had been assembling the unit which would deliver the bomb. His choice to lead the group was Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. a veteran bomber pilot. Tibbets squadron, at its heart fifteen B-29 bombers modified to carry and drop the new bombs, began secret rehearsals at Wendover Field in Utah in the Fall of 1944. They would test drop dummy bombs and send the results back to the headquarters of the Project at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Any needed modifications would be made and the testing would resume.

 

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Atomic Dawn IV (Nuclear Age)

Lead: On July 16, 1945 in the high desert of New Mexico, near the small village of Los Alamos, the first atomic bomb was exploded. The thing worked. Harry Truman had to decide what to do with it.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: On the day of the death of Franklin Roosevelt, just after taking office, President Harry Truman was approached by Secretary of War, Henry Stimson. The latter spoke briefly of a new weapon, nearing completion, a new explosive of almost unbelievable power. Truman did not know what he was talking about. Roosevelt had kept his Vice-President in the dark about a subject that was to provoke one of the earliest and most important decisions of Truman's Presidency, whether to use the Atomic Bomb on Japan or not. As the days passed and more information was made available, Truman slowly realized that within months he would have to determine how this new weapon would be used

 

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Atomic Dawn III (Nuclear Age)

Lead: With the first sustained nuclear reaction in December, 1942, the Roosevelt Administration decided to harvest the energy of the atom by creating a weapon so powerful that it might possibly bring an end to World War II.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: The executive director of the Manhattan Engineer District, the project to build the bomb, was Brigadier General Leslie Groves. He in turn chose J. Robert Oppenheimer, Professor of Physics at the University of California at Berkeley who assembled the team that solved the theoretical and scientific problems associated with the bomb. Groves also selected a naval ordinance officer, Captain William S. "Deak" Parsons to tackle the construction and delivery of the weapon.

 

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Atomic Dawn II (Nuclear Age)

Lead: Scientists had discovered the atom's nucleus, had determined that it was made of protons and neutrons and had split it, but it remained to put these discoveries to use. In the early 1940s, a team under Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago set out to create a sustained nuclear reaction.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From an early age, Enrico Fermi demonstrated a quick grasp of science. Born in Rome, as a child he began to read everything on which he could get his hands. His entrance exam to college was considered prodigious and within eight years after high school he had received his doctorate and was the youngest full professor in the history of the University of Rome. Fermi combined a deep interest in theoretical physics with a practical orientation toward experimenting. Having both tendencies was rare.

 

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Atomic Dawn I (Nuclear Age)

Lead: The road to Hiroshima began in earnest not on Tinian or in Los Alamos or Chicago or Princeton, but in pre-war Nazi Berlin.

Intro: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: By the mid-1930s scientists had determined that the nucleus of the atom was not a single unit of matter but was made up of protons and neutrons. Neutrons, because they have no electrical charge were being used to explore the nature of the atomic nucleus. The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi began bombarding various elements with neutrons in 1934 and had concluded that relatively moderate changes could be made in the nucleus of one substance if hit with streams of neutrons from another.

 

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