The Great Schism

Lead: For sixty years the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church lived in Avignon in the South of France. Sixty years of extravagance, spiritual neglect, and declining church influence. Just at the moment it seemed things could not get worse, they did.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: After six decades in France the prospect of further troubles convinced Pope Gregory XI to move back to Rome. Unfortunately he died shortly thereafter and when the College of Cardinals met to pick his successor, mobs poured into the streets of Rome, surrounded the place of meeting and put great pressure on the Cardinals to elect an Italian, who, they hoped, would keep headquarters in Rome. They elected Archbishop Bartolomeo Prignano who took the name Urban VI.


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Marian Anderson: Voice of Freedom

Lead: The headline read, "Mrs. Roosevelt Takes Stand: Resigns from D.A.R." Marian Anderson, the black concert artist had become the focus of a struggle against racism.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: In 1939 Sol Hurok, one of America's foremost artist management agents began to put together the season schedule of his brilliant contralto, Marian Anderson. Fresh from a very successful tour of Europe Anderson's fees were rising and Hurok wanted to book her into the best halls in the country. In Washington, the finest artists played Constitutional Hall owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Anderson was singing on the West Coast when word began to filter through the company. The negotiations for Constitution Hall were breaking down. The Daughters of the American Revolution would not let her sing there. She was a woman of color. Negroes were not permitted to perform at Constitutional Hall in 1939.


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Folies Bergere

Lead: The medical research scientist who described the anti-bacterial effect of penicillin was not really sure what he had found.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: Sir Alexander Fleming was born of a hard-working farm family in southwestern Scotland in 1881. He received his medical education at the University of London, began his practice at St. Mary's Hospital near Paddington Station in London's West End and remained there throughout his professional life. The research facilities at St. Mary's were considered to be among the most advanced in Britain at the time primarily due to the reputation of Sir Almroth Wright and his brilliant students who were advancing the understanding of the human immune system and the effect of vaccinations. Fleming joined Wright's team in 1906. 

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Black Plague II

Lead: Beginning in 1347 Europe was devastated by the Black Death. In some areas, perhaps as much as a third of the population was wiped out.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts

Content: The disease was the bubonic plague which took its name from very painful bubas or boils which grew on the skin of the neck, groin or armpit of its victim. It was caused by a bacillus which often lived in the blood stream of tiny fleas born by migratory black rats. The Black Death came in two versions: the bubonic form by which fleas would jump off the rats and infest, for instance, people's bedding, bite their human hosts and infect them. The other form was the pneumonic plague. It was passed from one human to another through the air or by touch.  

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Cromwell and the Jews of England

Lead: Ejected by King Edward I in 1290, Jews got back open toleration in England during the Puritan rule of Oliver Cromwell.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: In December, 1655, Lord Protector of England Oliver Cromwell convened a most unusual meeting. The so-called Whitehall Conference met to consider the petition of Manasseh Ben Israel, the leading Rabbi of Amsterdam, that England officially readmit Jews after 300 years of exile. The conference was made up of merchants, scholars, clergymen, and the Council of State, military and government officials who were called to advise Cromwell.

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The Hundred Years’ War V: Results

Lead: From 1337 to 1459 England and France struggled to determine the future of the French monarchy. France won but only barely.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: Both England and France suffered terribly during a century of intermittent warfare and conflict. Thousands of soldiers and civilians on both sides were slaughtered as a result of England's dynastic pursuit of the French Crown. Hundreds of thousands of acres of fertile French farmland were laid waste by armies tramping back and forth in various campaigns. The French economy was in shambles with heavy taxation and defeat adding to social chaos and disruption.


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The Hundred Years’ War II: Popular War

Lead: During the Hundred Years' War England and France mobilized public opinion for the war effort to an extent seldom known before.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The enormous requirements of conducting a war far from home on French soil forced the English to aggressively whip up public support. Prior to this time warfare was conducted on a smaller scale and along feudal lines. Feudal society was highly structured, much like a pyramid with the king at the top and peasants at the bottom. When war came the king would call on the next rank down for men and money. At the next rank, his barons would do the same to their knights and so on down the pyramid of feudal obligation. That is the way it worked in theory at least. Often the barons were far stronger the king which is why France was in trouble. During the Hundred Years' War much of the French aristocracy supported the English invader. Therefore each side had a motive for seeking widespread popular support: the English to maintain armies across the channel, the French to prosecute what was basically a civil war.


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