The Nez Perce War II

Lead: Considered among the most cooperative and adaptable of the Native American tribes in the western territories, in the summer and fall of 1877 a part of the Nez Perce stopped being cooperative.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: For many years the Nez Perce had inhabited tribal homelands in Eastern Oregon and Washington and western Idaho. Under the pressure of white ranchers and miners their hunting and grazing lands reserved by treaty with the United States had been shrinking. In 1877 they were about to shrink again this time under force. Chief Joseph, leader of a clan who had yet to participate in the treaty process and whose ancestral home along the Wallowa River in Eastern Oregon was about to disappear, had at last reluctantly agreed to move his people to the reservation in Idaho.

The Nez Perce War I

Lead: Faced with an order for their removal, part of the Nez Perce tribe left their reservation in western Idaho and made a break for freedom.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: From their first contact with Lewis and Clark in 1805, the Nez Perce, who adopted the name pierced nose, given them by French-Canadian traders, had good relations with their white neighbors. They were considered a quiet, civil people and many were converted to Christianity in the 1840s by American missionaries. Often the Nez Perce were allies with United States forces in subduing other tribal groups.

 

Mormons Arrive in Utah II

Lead: Forced to quit their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois the Mormons under Brigham Young moved west to find a new home.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: Their founder Joseph Smith had been killed by a mob and the Church of the Latter Day Saints was under increasing pressure from its neighbors. Persecution had convinced the new Mormon leader Brigham Young that they had to move to find a place of refuge. This decision was made in the fall of 1845 and soon Nauvoo became provisioning headquarters as Mormons sought to sell their farms and homes prepare for the journey.

 

Mr. Lincoln’s Christmas Gift

Lead: With Atlanta in flames behind them, the army of William Tecumseh Sherman left its line of communication, turned east, and simply disappeared.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: Though Atlanta was taken and lay in ruins, elsewhere the War had seemed to bog down in hopeless stalemate. Lee and Grant faced each other across the siege lines between Petersburg and Richmond. The Confederacy was gradually being exhausted by a solid blockade and the losing fight against forces too numerous to defeat. But rebel armies were still in the field and nearly everywhere intensely defiant. It was the need to address continued Confederate resistance that prompted Sherman's recommendation that he and his army be allowed to strike out across Georgia for the sea. He telegraphed a none-too-enthusiastic General Grant, "Until we can repopulate Georgia, it is useless to occupy it, but the utter destruction of its roads, houses and people will cripple their military resources....I can make the march and make Georgia howl."

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Pierre L’Enfant, Architect of the District

Lead: Brilliant or not, dealing with the designer of the District of Columbia was tough going.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts.

Content: From his arrival in America French engineer Pierre Charles L'Enfant earned a reputation for brilliant design, careful construction, and prickly personality. When the deal was cut to place the new Federal city in the south, George Washington chose the Pierre L'Enfant to lay it out. In mid-March 1791, L'Enfant began combing the territory which was in a geographical depression at the juncture of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers. His plan called for avenues 160 feet broad and a huge mall extending west from the base of Jenkin's Hill the future location of the Capitol Building. Instead of laying out street while running survey lines, he selected dominating cites, a Capitol on the promontory, the President's house on flat low ground, and as his unique contribution to urban planning he laid radial avenues which theoretically at least, made travel within the city more efficient.

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U.S. Supreme Court Deals with School Prayer

Lead: In 1962, the Supreme Court of the United States ignited a firestorm of controversy when it abolished officially endorsed prayer in the public schools.

Intro.: "A Moment in Time" with Dan Roberts.

Content: The prayer in question was that sponsored by the New York Board of Regents. It was not mandated but made available to local school boards. Some required their teachers to use it, others did not. It read, "Almighty God, We acknowledge our dependence upon thee, and we beg thy blessing upon us, our parents, our teachers, and our country." The prayer itself was rather innocuous; little more than tipping one's hat in God's direction. Any religious sentiment expressed was only of the palest variety. It was a pretty artless attempt at compromise between those who would not imagine something as important as the public schools without a reference to the Deity on one hand and those who would insisted that the presence of such a prayer was an unconstitutional establishment of religion.

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Senator Benton’s Conspiracy

Lead: Thomas Hart Benton had a vision of a vast expansion United States to the West, the problem was that nobody wanted to go there.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Thomas Hart Benton, the Senator from Missouri in the 1830s, wished to push the border of the United States 1000 miles beyond the crest of the Rockies to the Pacific, unfortunately several things stood in the path of his goal. First, Native Americans had rather enjoyed their homelands for centuries and didn't wish to be pushed aside. Second, Mexico controlled vast sections of southwestern North America and were understandably reluctant to turn it over to the United States. Finally, the British shared with the United States, joint occupancy of Oregon territory. The biggest problem however was American apathy. The risks associated with settling the west appeared too great.

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Stephen Ramseur Witnesses the Death of the Wooden Navy

Lead: On two days in 1862, Steven Ramseur witnessed the death of the wooden Navy.

Intro.: A Moment in Time with Dan Roberts

Content: Ramseur was a 24-year-old major of artillery who in his service with the Confederacy rose to the rank of major general, the youngest West Pointer to receive that rank in Confederate service. He happened to be in Norfolk on court-martial duty in March 1862 on the day the CSS Virginia went out to attack the northern blockade fleet. Three days later he sat down to write his brother-in-law and describe the exciting battle. What he witnessed was no less than the transformation of naval warfare.

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